Bibliographical reference

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1Abbas Zaidi SM, Jameel SS, Sultana A, Zaman F & Fuzail MSafety and efficacy of leeching therapy for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis using Indian medicinal leech2009Osteoarthritis (knee)
2Abbas Zaidi SM, Jameel SS, Zaman F, Jilani S, Sultana A & Khan SAA systematic overview of the medicinal importance of sanguivorous leeches2011Review Article, Saliva
3Abdualkader AM, Ghawi AM, Alaama M, Awang M, Merzouk ALeech therapeutic applications2013Review Article, Therapy, History, Cancer
4Abdullah S, Dar LM, Rashid A, Tewari AHirudotherapy/leech therapy: Applications and indications in surgery2012Review Article, Surgery
5Abduvaliev AALeech therapy of patients with reactive arthritis2003Osteoarthritis, Bdellotomy
6Abelson MB, Mandele E, Paradisa A,.George MThe effect of hyaluronidase on akinesia during cataract surgery1989Hyaluronidasis, Cataract surgery, Anaesthesia,
7Abraham A, Minker EÜber die Innervation des Darmkanals des medizinischen Blutegels (Hirudo medicinalis)1958Biology, Nerval System, Digestion
8Abrutyn EHospital-associated infections from leeches1988Pharmacovigilance, Infections
9Adams JF, Lassen LFLeech therapy for venous congestion following myocutaneous pectoralis flap reconstruction1995Surgery
10Adams SLThe medicinal leech: Historical perspectives1989History
11Adams SLThe medicinal leech: A page from the annelids of internal medicine1988History
12Adams SLThe emergency management of a medicinal leech bite1989Therapy
13Afra DRandomisierte kontrollierte Studie zur Wirksamkeit der Blutegeltherapie bei symptomatischer Epicondylitis lateralis humeri2010Epicondylitis, Orthopaedics
14Agnelli G, Bergqvist D, Cohen AT et al.Randomized clinical trial of postoperative Fondaparinux versus perioperative Dalteparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism in high-risk abdominal surgery2005Saliva, Factor X a Inhibitor, Anticoagulation
15Aguilera-Arreola G, Hernandez-Rodriguez C, Zuniga G et al.Virulence potential and genetic diversity of Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas veronii, and Aeromonas hydrophila clinical isolation from Mexico and Spain: a comparative study2007Aeromonas bacteria
16Ahirrao RA, Jadhav JB & Pawar SPA review on leech therapy2017Review
17Ahmad R, Baharuddin KA, Zaidin H et al.An unusual case of urethral hirudinasis2008Pharmacovigilance, Leeches
18Ahmad Z & Ali HTreatment of chronic non-healing leg ulcers in Unani (Greek) system of medicine - Case report2016Dermatology, Ulcer
19Akyürek M, Safak T & Kecik AMicrosurgical ear replantation without venous repair: failure of development of venous channels despite patency of arterial anastomosis for 14 days2001Surgery
20Alam SS, Ahmad W & Yunus SSIrsal-el-Alaq (Leech therapy/hirudo therapy) in surgical diseases: A review2016Surgery, Review Article
21Alam T, Hasan I, Perveen A, Nasamuddin M & Perveen SIndications, contraindications and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)2013Review Article
22Alavi KEpistaxis and hemotysis due to Hirudo medicinalis (medical leech)1969Pharmacovigilance, Leeches, Epistaxis, Anaemia
23Albach EBeobachtungen bei der therapeutischen Blutegelverwendung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung anaphylaktischer Erscheinungen1939Pharmacovigilance, Anaphylaxis, Allergy
24Al-Badran & Al-Fadal SCloning, expression of hirudin gene from leech (Hirudo orientalis) in BL21 (DE3) strain2017Biology, Hirudin, Gene Expression, Saliva
25Alban SDer Thrombosegefahr vorbeugen.2002Saliva, Faktor X a-Inhibitor, Anticoagulation
26Alban SDamit das Blut besser fließt1996Saliva, Anticoagulation
27Aldemir C & Duygun FWhen and how should leeches be applied in cases of venous congestion?2017Surgery, Procedure
28Al-Khleif A, Roth M, Menge C, Heuser J, Baljer G & Herbst WTenacity of mammalian viruses in the gut of leeches fed with porcine blood2011Hirudo medicinalis, Pharmacovigilance, Pathogenous Viruses, Infections
29Altamura D, Calonje E, Liau JI, Rogers M, Verdolini RDiffuse cutaneous pseudolymphoma due to therapy with medicinal leeches2014Pharmacovigilance
30Altintac ALeech therapy according to Ottoman medical manuscripts2014History
31Altman LKThe doctor‘s world; leeches still have their medical uses1981Review Article
32Altmann C, Naber C & Haude MDirekte Thrombinantagonisten; Eine Alternative zur Antikoagulation mit Heparin?1997Hirudin, Anticoagulation
33Amaley KD & Naphade AMMechanism of action of leech by different salivary secretions2016Review, Saliva
34Ammar A, Guns E, Kucuk O, Abdualkader A & Alaama MMechanism of anticancer activity of BPS-001 (lyophilized leech saliva extract)2017Pharmacology, Cancer
35Ammar A, Hassona MH, Meckling GR, Chan LG, Chin MY, Abdusikader A, Alsama M, Marzouk A, Helaluddin A, Ghawi A, Kucuk O & Guns ESAssessment of the antitumor activity of leech (Hirudinaria manillensis) saliva extract in prostate cancer2015Pharmacology, Prostate Cancer, Saliva
36Ammar A, Hessein M, Guns E, Chin, M, Helaluddin AB, Abdualkader A, Alaama M, Merzouk A, Ghawi A & Kucuk OIn vivo assessment of the therapeutic effects of lyophilized leech saliva extract from (Hirudinaria manillensis) on LNCaP tumor xenograft model in nude mice2015Pharmacology, Prostate Cancer, Saliva
37Andereya S, Stanzel S, Maus U, Müller-Rath R, Mumme T, Siebert CH, Stock F & Schneider UAssessment of leech therapy for knee osteoarthritis2008Osteoarthritis
38Anderson MDLeech Therapy Procedure2007Surgery, Leech Keeping, Application Procedure
39Andhey VP, Tambe AL, Malavade HC & Tople PBRole of jalaukavacharana (leech therapy) in the management of scalp psoriasis . A case study2016Dermatology, Psoriasis
40Anthony JP, Lineaweaver WC, Davis JW & Buncke HJQuantitative fluorometric effects of leeching on a replanted ear1989Surgery, Fluorimetry
41Antipov A & Kamenev OThrombolytic substance on the basis of medical leech extract2012Saliva
42Anuradha C & Shridhara BSRole of Jalaukavacharana in managment of Vipadika: A case study2017Dermatology, Skin cracks
43Apfelberg DB, Maser MR, White DN & Lash HHigh- and low solutions for massive cavernous hemangioma of the face: Lasers and leeches to rescue1989Surgery
44Ardehali B, Hand K, Nduka C, Holmes A & Wood SDelayed leech-borne infection with Aeromonas hydrophila in escharotic flap wound2006Pharmacovigilance, Infectionens
45Artüz MLThe preliminary biological work of catching areas of leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) in Turkey1997Biology, Leeches
46Arusan S, Bayan B, Gödekmerdam A & Saglam NA case report: Hirudotherapy as treatment modality in the microsurgery2013Surgery
47Arutyunyan AF, Gaydukov SN & Kustarov VNContemporary aspects of pathogenically substantiated therapy of adenomyosis2016Endometriosis
48Ascenzi P, Aducci P, Amiconi G et al.Binding of the recombinant proteinase inhibitor eglin c from the leech Hirudo medicinalis to serine (pro) enzymes: a comparative thermodynamic study1991Saliva, Eglin
49Ascenzi P, Amiconi G, Bode W et al.Proteinase inhibitors from the European medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis: structural, functional and biomedical aspects1995Saliva, Eglin
50Ascenzi P, Amiconi G, Menegatti E et al.Binding of the recombinant proteinase inhibitor eglin c from leech Hirudo medicinalis to human leukocyte elastase, bovine alpha-chymotrypsin and subtilisin Carlsberg: A thermodynamic study1988Saliva, Eglin
51Aschner BNetzhautablösung und Aderlass1929Ophthalmology, Retinal Detachment
52Aschner B & Müller IWTechnik der Blutegelanwendung1995Therapy
53Asgari SA, Rostami S & Teimoori MLeech therapy for treating priapism: Case report2017Priapism
54Asutkar SG & Varshney SCA conceptual overview on inflammatory markers in patients of cellulitis (Vranashopia) and its management with leech therapy2016Cellulitis
55Atalym I, Akat E, Arikan H & Uyamkgil YLight microscopy investigation of the immune system cells of Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 17582017Biology
56Athreya P, Grampurohit P, Jahagirdhar S & Toshikhane HDEffectiveness of Lalaukavacarana (Leech therapy) in acute inflammatory joint disorders2013Osteoarthritis
57Auerswald EA, Morenweiser R, Sommerhoff CP et al.Recombinant leech-derived tryptase inhibitor: construction, production, protein chemical characterization and inhibition of HIV-1 replication1994Saliva, LDTI
58Aurich MBlutegel-Tradition und Moderne2013Review Article
59Aurich MRechtliche Aspekte der Blutegeltherapie2006Law
60Aurich MRechtliche Entwicklungen zur Blutegeltherapie2006Law
61Aurich M & Koeppen DEine Anwenderumfrage zur Blutegeltherapie – Auswertung von 171 Falldokumentationen2009Therapy, Pharmacovigilance
62Aurich M, Hahn S & Koeppen DComeback van de bloedzuigertherapie in de moderne Geneeskunde2014Review Article
63Autrum H & Graetz EVergleichende Untersuchungen zur Verdauungsphysiologie der Egel1934Biology, Digestion
64Avci G, Akan M, Yildirim S & Aköz TDigital neurovascular compression due to a forgotten tourniquet2003Pharmacovigilance, Surgery
65Aydin A, Nazik H, Kuvat SV et al.External decontamination of wild leeches with hypochloric acid2004Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas, Bacteria
66Azari K & Fisher CA simple device for the application of medicinal leeches2008Surgery
67Azzopardi EA, Whitaker IS, Rozen WM, Naderi N & Kon MChemical and mechanical alternatives to leech therapy: A systematic review and critical appraisal2011Surgery
68Baal IVersuche über Temperatursinn an Blutegeln1928Biology, Leeches
69Babayi H, Praise OO, Ajoke LF, Olayemi IK, Baba E & Peter OOEvaluation of the effects of leech salivary extract (LSE) on haematological parameters in rats2018Pharmacology, Haematology, Leech Saliva
70Bach EZur Therapie der Eklampsie1942Therapy
71Bäcker M, Lüdtke R, Afra D, Cesur Ö, Langhorst J, Fink M, Bachmann J, Dobos GJ & Michalsen AEffectiveness of leech therapy in chronic lateral epicondylitis: A randomized controlled trial2011Epicondylitis
72Bagdasorova AVEffect of Hirudin therapy on some functions and the hydrodynamics of the eye of glaucoma patients1969Saliva, Hirudin, Ophthalmology
73Baici A, & Seemüller UKinetics of the inhibition of human leucocyte elastase by eglin from the leech Hirudo medicinalis1984Saliva, Eglin
74Baj A, Beltramini GA, Lagana F & Gianni ABAmputation trauma of the face: surgical techniques and microsurgical replantations2009Surgery
75Baj A, Beltramini GA, Lagana F & Gianni ABMicrosurgical upper lip replantation: a case report2010Surgery
76Baker CA & Nayduch DAMedicinal leech therapy: a case study1989Orthopaedics
77Bakhshi M, Jalalian B, valiant M, Shariati S, Saeidi T & Ranjbar HCan leech therapy be used as an alternative treatment for controlling migraine headache?2015Migraine
78Balasaheb PK & Sanjeev YLeech therapy in sacroiliitis - A case study2018Sacroiliitis, Back Pain
79Baltzley MJ, Gaudry Q & Kristan WBSpecies-specific behavioral patterns correlate with differences in synaptic connections between homologous mechanosensory neurons2010Biology, Nervous System
80Banihani OI, Fox JA, Gander BH, Grunwald LJ, & Cannon GMComplete penile amputation during ritual neonatal circumcision and successful replantation using postoperative leech therapy2014Surgery
81Bank J, Zilinsky Y, Haik J et al.Medicinal leech fixation in precarious locations2008Surgery, Treatment Procedure
82Bapat RD, Acharya BS, Juvekar S & Dahanukar SALeech therapy for complicated varicose veins1998Varicosis, Ulcer, Wound Healing
83Barnes CS, Frech M, Hofmann U et al.Saratin for inhibiting platelet adhesion to collagen2005Saliva, Calin, Saratin, Patent
84Barnes CS, Krafft B, Frech M, Hofmann UR, Papendieck A, Dahlems U, Gellissen G & Hoylarts MFProduction and characterization of Saratin, an inhibitor of von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet adhesion to collagen.2001Saliva, Calin, Saratin
85Barnett GR, Taylor GI & Mutimer KLThe “chemical leech”: intra-replant subcutaneous heparin as an alternative to venous anastomosis. Report of three cases1989Surgery, Heparin, Anticoagulation,
86Barzegar A, Azizi A, Faridi P & Mohagheghzadeh ALeech therapy in Iranian traditional medicine2015History
87Basanova AC, Baskova IP & Zavalova LLVascular-platelet and plasma hemostasis regulators from bloodsucking animals2002Saliva
88Baskova IPHirudotherapie (Handbuch)2015Review Article
89Baskova IP & Nikonov GIDestabilase – an enzyme of medicinal leech salivary gland secretion that hydrolyses isopeptide bonds in stabilized fibrin1985Saliva, Destabilase, Anticoagulation, Thrombolysis
90Baskova IP & Nikonov GIDestabilase, the novel epsilon-(gamma-Glu)-Lys isopeptidase with thrombolytic activity1991Saliva, Destabilase, Thrombolysis
91Baskova IP & Zavalova LLProteinase inhibitors from the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis2001Saliva
92Baskova IP & Zavalova LLPolyfunctionality of destabilase, a lysozyme from a medicinal leech2008Saliva, Destabilase
93Baskova IP, Nikonov GI, Mirkamalova EG et al.Effect of preparations from the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) on phagocytosis and complement system1988Saliva
94Baskova IP, Aguejouf OM, Azoughag- Oualane F, Zavalova LL, Basanova AV & Doutremepuich CArterial antithrombotic effect of piyavit, the novel pharmacological preparation from the medicinal leech, and of its components, prostanoids, and enzyme destabilase1995Saliva, Piyavit, Destabilase Anticoagulation, Thrombolysis
95Baskova IP, Alekseeva AY, Kostyuk SV, Neverova ME, Smirnova TD & Veiko NNThe use of a novel reagent, Cu-FL, for determination of NO synthesis stimulated by the medicinal leech salivary cell secretion in human endothelial cell (HUVEC) and rat cardiomyocyte cultures2013Saliva
96Baskova IP, Cherkesova DU & Mosolov VVHirudin from leech heads and whole leeches and pseudo hirudin from leech bodies1983Saliva, Hirudin
97Baskova IP, Ferner Z, Balkina AS, Kozin S, Kharitonova OV, Zavalova LL & Zgoda VGSteroids, histamine, and serotonin in the medicinal leech salivary gland secret2008Saliva, Steroids, Histamine, Serotonin
98Baskova IP, Khalil S, Nartikova VF & Paskhina TSInhibition of plasma Kallikrein. Kininase and kinin-like activities of preparations of the medicinal leech1992Saliva, Analgesia, Bradykinin
99Baskova IP, Khalil S, Nikonov GI, Rabinovich SE & Vastikova VFInhibition of kallikrein from human plasma by salivary gland secretion and extracts of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis1988Saliva, Kallikrein
100Baskova IP, Korostelev AN, Chirkova LD, Zavalova LL, Basanova AV & Doutremepuich CPiyavit from the medicinal leech is a new orally active anticoagulating and antithrombotic drug1997Saliva, Piyavit, Thrombolysis, Anticoagulation, Anti-Inflammation
101Baskova IP, Kostrjukova ES, Vlasova MA, Kharitanova OV, Levitskij SA, Zavalova LL & Moshkoviskiy SAProteins and peptides of the salivary gland secretion of medicinal leeches Hirudo verbana, H. medicinalis, and H. orientalis2008Saliva
102Baskova IP, Nikonov GI & Cherkesova DUAntithrombin, antitrypsin and antichymotrypsin activities of the salivary gland secretion and intestinal chyme of medicinal leeches. Antichymotrypsin activity of partially purified preparations of hirudin and pseudohirudin1984Saliva, Hirudin
103Baskova IP, Nikonov GI & Khalil SThrombolytic agents of the preparation from the medicinal leeches1988Saliva, Anticoagulation
104Baskova IP, Nikonov GI & Khalil SThrombolytic agents of the preparation from the medicinal leeches.1988Saliva, Anticoagulation
105Baskova IP, Nikonov GI, Dolgov VV, Tertov VV & Orektov ANThe effect of medicinal leech preparations on atherogenesis1989Saliva, Cardiovascular System, Atherosclerosis
106Baskova IP, Nikonov GI, Mazurov AV, Misselvits F & Leitin VLMechanisms of the inhibition of vascular-platelet hemostasis by salivary gland secretion of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis1987Saliva, Anticoagulation
107Baskova IP, Pavlova IB & Parfenov ASAnalysis of the effects of medicinal leech on arterial function in elderly volunteers by means of photoplethysmography with angioscan-012014Cardiovascular System, Photopletysmography, Healthy Volunteers
108Baskova IP, Yudina TG, Zavalova LL & Dudkina ASProtein – lipid particles of medicinal leech salivary gland secretion; their size and morphology2010Saliva, Proteins, Lipids
109Baskova IP, Yusupova GI & Nikonov GILipase and cholesterol-esterase of salivary gland secretion of the medicinal leech.1984Saliva
110Baskova IP, Zavalova LL, Basanova AV & Grigoreva OVDestabilase from the medicinal leech: the hydrolysis of isopeptide bonds in d-dimer, a fragment of stabilized fibrin1999Saliva, Destabilase, Thrombolysis, D-Dimer
111Baskova IP, Zavalova LL, Basanova AV & Sass AVSeparation of monomerizing and lysozyme activities of destabilase from the medicinal leech salivary gland secretion2001Saliva, Destabilase, Thrombolysis
112Baskova IP, Zavalova LL, Basanova AV, Moshkovskyi SA & Zgoda VGProtein profiling of the medicinal leech salivary gland secretion by proteomic analytical methods2004Saliva
113Baskova IP, Zavalova LL, Berezhnoy S & Gabbasov ZAInhibition of induced and spontaneous platelet aggregation by destabilase from medicinal leech2000Saliva, Destabilase, Thrombolysis
114Baskova IP, Zavalova LL, Kostrjukova ES,Titova GA, Lazarev VN & Zgoda VGProteomic analysis methods for characterization of proteins from the salivary gland secretions of the medicinal leech during different seasons2007Saliva
115Batchelor AGG, Davison P & Sully TThe salvage of congested skin flaps by application of leeches1984Surgery
116Bates M, Kneer K & Logan CMedicinal leech therapy – an overview1989Review Article, Therapy
117Batovski AA, Sheenkov YA, Karakozov AG, Olenicheva EL, Sterkova GV, Levchenko OB, Molodova A, Kazakov SP, Orlov FA, Khritinin DF, Malakhovski VV & Katenko SVClinical evaluation of the effectiveness of using non-drug treatment integrated technique from military contract servicemen with metabolic syndrome2017Metabolic sndrome
118Baudet JThe use of leeches in distal digital replantation1991Surgery
119Bauters T, Buyle F, Blot S, Robays H, Vogelaers D, van Landuyt K, Vanhove W & Claeys GProphylactic use of levofloxacin during medicinal leech therapy2014Pharmacovigilance, Prophylaxis
120Bauters T, Buyle F, Verschaegen G, Vermis K, Vogelaers D, Claeys G & Robays HInfection risk related to the use of medicinal leeches2007Pharmacovigilance, Infections
121Beer AMBlutegeltherapie: von der charismatischen Volksmedizin zur Evidence Based Medicine2002Review Article, Therapy
122Beer AM, Fey S, Ciborovius & Knorr MArzneimittelexanthem in Zusammenhang mit Trimethoprim- und Sulfamethoxazol-Medikation – Blutegeltherapie als triggernder Faktor.2005Pharmacovigilance, Dermatology, Skin Reactions
123Beer AM, Fey S, Kuhnen C & Mentzel TKutane Arthropodenreaktion nach Blutegeltherapie2001Pharmacovigilance, Dermatology, Skin Reactions, Arthropode Reaction
124Beger B, Loewenich F, Goetze E, Moergel M & Walter CLeech related Aeromonas veronii complex infection after reconstruction with a microvascular forearm flap2016Surgery, Infection
125Belaldavar BP, Umest N, Mohit S & Kalakuntlar MAn uncalled guest in the nose: A living leech2016Leech Infestation
126Benecke MEinfache Darstellung des Nervensystems und weiterer Strukturen junger Blutegel1995Biology
127Bennett-Marsden M & Ng AHirudotherapy: A guide to using leeches to drain blood from tissue2014Surgery, Procedure
128Betzel C, Danter Z, Genov N et al.Structure of the proteinase inhibitor eglin c with hydrolysed reactive centre at 2.0 A resolution1993Saliva, Eglin
129Bezzola TEfficacité de l`application de sangsues sur un modèle de lambeau cutané de type “random” chez le rat2007Pharmacology, Surgery
130Bhangare AN & Lahange SMA critical review on consequence of Jalaukavacharan (leech therapy) in clinical practice2016Ayurveda, Review Article
131Bhat AI, Habib A, Mustafa AKG, Tariq S, Saif R, Wani Z, Islam N & Wajid MALeech therapy in alopecia areata – A single case report2014Alopecia areata, Autoimmune Disease
132Bibbo C, Fritschel T, Stemper M & Hall MFlap infection associated with medicinal leeches in reconstructive surgery: Two new drug-resistant organisms2013Surgery, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pharmacovigilance, Antibiotics, Resistance
133Bichler J, Fichtl B, Siebeck M & Fritz HPharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of hirudin in man after single subcutaneous and intravenous bolus injection1988Anticoagulation, Saliva, Hirudin
134Bickel KD, Lineaweaver WC, Follansbee S et al.Intestinal flora of the medicinal leech Hirudinaria manillensis1994Hirudo manillensis, Infections
135Biondi C, Belardetti F & Brunelli MIncreased synthesis of cyclic AMP and short-term plastic changes in the segmental ganglia of the leech Hirudo medicinalis1982Biology, Nervous System
136Bitzer S, Peters K, Klügel R, Berndsen M & Garanin G4 Fachleute - 4 Behandlungsmethoden Rhizarthrose2017Rhizarthritis
137Blaise S, LeBrun V, Sparsa A, Debrous JL & Bonnetblanc JMContact dermatitis with Hirudo medicinalis2002Pharmacovigilance, Dermatitis, Eczema, Dermatology, HiruCrème, Leech Ointment
138Blaszkowska J & Litwinowicz APrevention of transmission of potentially pathogenic fungi from the leech H. verbana used in hirudotherapy2016Microbiology, Pathogenic Fungi, Infections, Transmission
139Blessmann M & Schmelzle RDie Blutegeltherapie in der plastischen Chirurgie2009Review Article, Surgery
140Bode W, Papamokos E & Musil DThe high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the complex formed between subtilisin Carlsberg and eglin c, an elastase inhibitor from the leech Hirudo medicinalis. Structural analysis, subtilisin structure and interface geometry1987Saliva, Eglin
141Böhnke EDie Blutegeltherapie in der Praxis1993Therapy
142Bomar L, & Graf JInvestigation into the physiologics of Aeromonas veronii in vitro and inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech using RNA-seq2012Hirudo medicinalis, Aeromonas
143Bonow M & Svanberg IUrban ponds for breeding medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis, Linnaeus 1758)2017History, Biology
144Borden TA, Rosen RT & Schwarz GRMassive scrotal hematoma developing after transfemoral cardiac cathgerization1974Haematoma
145Boroffka IOsmo- und Volumenregulation bei Hirudo medicinalis1968Hirudo medicinalis, Biology
146Bottenberg HDie Blutegelbehandlung.1983Handbook
147Bottenberg HErfahrungen in der Blutegelbehandlung1934Therapy
148Bottenberg HHandhabung der Blutegeltherapie1935Therapy
149Bottenberg HWissenschaftliche und praktische Fragen zur Blutegelbehandlung1936Therapy
150Bottenberg HIndikationserweiterung der Blutegelbehandlung1936Therapy
151Bottenberg HBlutegelbehandlung bei Mastoiditis1937Therapy, Mastoiditis
152Bottenberg HIndikationsstellung zur Blutegel- und Schröpfbehandlung1941Therapy
153Bourdais L, Heusse JL, Aillet S et al.Complication infectieuse d‘un lambeau de TRAM liée aux sangsues: à propos d‘un cas2010Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
154Boute NJThe use of medical leeches for venous congestion2014Veterinary Medicine, Cat
155Braga A, Lineaweaver WC, Whitney TM, Follansbee S, Buncke HJSensitivities of Aeromonas hydrophila cultured from medicinal leeches to oral antibiotics1990Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas hydrophila, Antibiosis
156Braschler TR, Merino S, Tomas JM & Graf JComplement resistance is essential for colonization of the digestive tract of Hirudo medicinalis by Aeromonas strains2003Biology, Digestive System, Aeromonas hydrophila
157Braun NJ & Schnebli HPA brief review of the biochemistry and pharmacology of Eglin c, an elastase inhibitor1986Saliva, Eglin
158Braun NJ, Bodmer JL, Virca GD et al.Kinetic studies on the interaction of eglin c with human leucocyte elastase and cathapepsin G1987Saliva, Eglin
159Brody GA, Maloney WJ & Hentz VRDigit replantation applying the leech Hirudo medicinalis1989Surgery
160Bromley HJThe freshwater leeches annelida hirudinea of Israel and adjacent areas1994Leeches, Demography, Biology
161Brown PRUse of leeches1990Veterinary Medicine
162Bruchhausen F, Ebel S, Frahm AW & Hackenthal EHirudo1993Handbook, Pharmaceutics, Hirudin
163Brück FDie Ersatzbehandlungen des Aderlasses1943Therapy
164Bruckbauer HPerkutane Resorption von Blutegelwirkstoffen (Eglin und Hirudin) an der isolierten Schweinehaut und im in-vivo-Modell an der Maus1984Saliva, Hirudin, Eglin, Pharmacology, Kinetics, Leech Ointment
165Brzezinski P, Solovan C, Chiriac A & Foia LCase report: Positive outcome of medical leeches (hirudotherapy) for venous congestion2015Dermatology, Erythema, Pharmacovigilance
166Bucha E, Nowak G & Markwardt FPrevention of experimental coronary thrombosis by hirudin1988Thrombosis, Thrombolysis
167Bugnazet L, Pons JM & Karchen JLes sangsues en pratique hospitalière2001Review Article, Surgery
168Büller HRNeuer oraler Faktor-Xa-Inhibitor Rivaroxaban zeigt in Phase II-Langzeitstudien vielversprechende Ergebnisse2006Saliva, Faktor X a-Inhibitor, Rivaroxaban
169Büller HR, Davidson BL, Decousus H et al.Fondaparinux or enoxaparin for the initial treatment of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis: a randomized trial2004Saliva, Faktor X a-Inhibitor, Fondaparinux, Thrombolysis
170Bulling BDie Behandlung der Thrombophlebitis mit Blutegeln2010Thrombophlebitis
171Buncke HJMicrosurgical reattachment of totally amputated ears1987Surgery
172Bunker TDThe contemporary use of the medicinal leech. Injury.1981Review Article, Surgery, Haematoma
173Buntic RF & Brooks DStandardized protocol for artery-only fingertip replantation2010Surgery, Anticoagulation, Blood Flow Measurement, Combination Therapy
174Buote NJThe use of medical leeches for venous congestion. A review and case report2014Veterinary Medicine
175Bürgy JSind die Würmer satt, ist die Arthrose weg2001Osteoarthritis
176Büsing KH, Döll W & Freytag KDie Bakterienflora der medizinischen Blutegel1953Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas hydrophila
177Butt AM, Ismail A, Lawson-Smith M, Shahid M, Webb, J & Chester DLLeech therapy for the treatment of venous congestion in flaps, digital re-plants and revascularizations - A two-year review from a regional centre2016Surgery, Review Article
178Butzengeiger OZur Ätiologie und Therapie der Thrombose1931Thrombosis, Anticoagulation
179Byrne PJ & Bernstein PEThe use of medicinal leeches to treat macroglossia secondary to blunt trauma2001Haematoma
180Cakmak T, Caltekin I, Gkcen E, Savrun E & Yasar EKounis syndrome due to hirudotherapy (leech therapy) in emergency department: A case report2017Pharmacovigilance, Allergy, Kounis Syndrome
181Calabrese RL & Norris BJRFamide peptides in the leech, Hirudo medicinalis1989Biology
182Calder IG & Smith VHHyaluronidase and sodium hyaluronate in cataract surgery1986Saliva, Hyaluronidase, Anaesthesia
183Camison L, Naran S, Maricevich R, Adetayo O, Savit A Grunwaldt LJ, Goldstein j A, & Losee JELarge composite cartilage crafts with hyperbaric oxygen: An alternative in pediatric facial reconstruction2015Surgery
184Canpolat I & Saglam NTreatment of oral hematomas in dogs with the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis2004Veterinary Medicine, Pharmacology, Haematoma, Dog
185Canpolat I & Saglam NTreatment of a diffuse hematoma in a dog with the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis2004Veterinary Medicine, Haematoma, Dog
186Cardot JM, Lefévre GY & Godbillon JAPharmacokinetics of Rec-Hirudin in healthy volunteers after intravenous administration.1994Saliva, Recombinant Hirudin
187Catarsi S, Garcia-Gil G, Traina G & Brunelli MSeasonal variation of serotonin content and nonassociative learning of swim induction in the leech Hirudo medicinalis1990Biology, Nervous System, Serotonin
188Cesur ÖRandomisierte kontrollierte Studie zur Wirksamkeit der Blutegeltherapie bei symptomatischer Rhizarthrose2009Osteoarthritis
189Ceylan M, Cetinhayan O, Kücükhara R & Akcimen UReproduction efficiency of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana Carena 18202015Biology, Breeding
190Chalisova NI, Baskova IP, Zavalova LL, Pennijainen VANeurite-stimulating effect of Hirudo medicinalis salivary gland secreting factors in organotypic culture of the dorsal root ganglia2001Saliva, Destabilase, Bdellins, Neurones
191Chalisova NI, Pennijajnen VP & Baskova IPNeurite-stimulating activity of secretions from the Hirudo medicinalis salivary gland in cultured sensory neurons2001Saliva, Neurones
192Chalisova NI, Pennijajnen VP, Baskova IP et al.The neurite-stimulating activity of components of the salivary gland secretion of the medicinal leech in cultures of sensory neurons2003Saliva, Destabilase, Bdellins, Neurones, Neurology
193Chan WY, Carter LM & Wales CJLeech control: a cheap and simple method2006Surgery, Methodology
194Chang JY, Ngai PK, Rink H et al.The structural elements of hirudin which bind to the fibrinogen recognition site of thrombin are exclusively located within its acidic C-terminal tail1990Saliva, Hirudin
195Chao J & Chao LFunctional analysis of human tissue Kallikrein in transgenic mouse models1996Saliva, Hirustasin
196Chaubey PK, Singh AK, Mishra SP & Singh OPBiochemical analysis of anti-oxidation effect of leech therapy in the patients of osteo-arthritis2014Osteoarthritis, Anti-Oxidants
197Chen WC, Chien CY, Yang CH et al.Nasal leech infestation: report of seven leeches and literature review2009Review Article, Leeches, Epistaxis
198Cheng Shi-ping, Liu Jia-lin & Yuan JingStudy of the effect of leeching on plasma endothelin and soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus2005Lupus erythematodes
199Chepeha DB, Nussenbaum B, Bradford CR, Teknos TNLeech therapy for patients with surgically unsalvageable venous obstruction after revascularized free tissue transfer2002Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
200Chmiel H, Anadere I, Moser KHemorheological changes under blood leeching1989Anticoagulation, Pharmacology
201Cho BH, Ahn HBMicrosurgical replantation of a partial ear, with leech therapy1999Surgery
202Choi Y, Kim SCCutaneous pseudolymphoma induced by Hirudo medicinalis therapy2012Pharmacovigilance, Dermatology, Pseudolymphoma
203Choudhary PKLeech therapy in Thromboangiitis obliterans (BUERGER`S Disease)2015Wound Healing, Thromboangiitis (BUERGER`S Disease)
204Chun JK, Sterry P, Margoles SL & Silver LSalvage of ear replantation using the temporoparietal fascial flap2000Surgery
205Clancy S & Tan MCLate salvage of a free TRA flap with medicinal leech therapy: a case report2009Surgery
206Clark NM, Femino JE & Chenoweth CEAeromonas infection after medicinal leech therapy: case reports and review of the literature2001Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas
207Clark SA, Valauri FA, Buncke HI & Alpert BSThe use of leeches in microsurgery1987Surgery
208Claude ASpreading properties and mucolytic activity of leech extracts1940Saliva
209Claude ASpreading properties of leech extracts and the formation of lymph1937Biology
210Clemenz NWirkung der Blutegeltherapie auf die Schmerzintensität bei Patienten mit Arthrose: Systematische Literaturübersicht2011Osteoarthritis
211Cole DClinical hirudology: revival of an ancient art1985History
212Concannon MJ & Puckett CLMicrosurgical replantation of an ear in a child without venous repair1998Surgery
213Conforti ML, Connor NP, Heisey DM & Hartig GKEvaluation of performance characteristics of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) for the treatment of venous congestion2002Pharmacology, Surgery, Doppler-Fluorimetry
214Connor NP, Conforti ML, Heisey DM, Vanderby R, Kunz D & Hartig GKAugmented blood removal after medical leech feeding in congested tissue flaps2002Surgery, Secondary Haemorrhage, Mechanical Leech
215Cooper EL & Mologne NExploiting leech saliva to treat osteoarthritis: A provocative perspective2016Saliva, Osteoarthritis
216Cooper EL, Balamurugan M, Huang CY et al.Earthworms dilong: Ancient, inexpensive, noncontroversial models may help clarify approaches to integrated medicine emphasizing neuroimmune systems2012History, Saliva
217Cooper JEVeterinary surgeons and leeches1989Veterinary Medicine
218Cornejo A, Shammas RL, Povomero LP, Lee HJ & Hollenbeck STInstitutional outcomes of leech therapy for venous congestion in 87 patients2017Surgery
219Cottler PS, Gampper TJ, Rodeheaver GT & Skalak TCEvaluation of clinically applicable exsanguination treatments to alleviate venous congestion in an animal skin flap model1999Surgery, Pharmacology, Mechanical Leech, Doppler-Fluorimetry
220Crisp KM, Klukas KA, Gilchrist LS et al.Distribution and development of dopamine- and octodopamine-synthesizing neurons in the medicinal leech2002Biology
221Croft AM, Chandra S, Fernandez GAP & Michalsen ACochrane Review (Protocol): Leeches (Hirudinea)for osteoarthritis2014Review Article, Osteoarthritis
222Cruz CP, Eidt J, Drouilhet J et al.Saratin, an inhibitor of von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet adhesion, decreases platelet aggregation and intimal hyperplasia in a rat carotid endarterectomy model.2001Saliva, Calin, Saratin
223Csoka TB, Frost G, Stern RHyaluronidase in tissue invasion1997Saliva, Hyaluronidase
224Cuddy LCWound closure, tension-relieving techniques, and local flaps2017Veterinary Medicine, Wound Closure
225Daane S, Zamora S & Rockwell WBClinical use of leeches in reconstructive surgery1997Surgery
226Dabb RW, Malone JM, Leverett LCThe use of medicinal leeches in the salvage of flaps with venous congestion1992Surgery
227Dahaghin S, Bierma-Zeinstra S, Ginai AZ et al.Prevalence and pattern of radiographic hand osteoarthritis and association with pain and disability (the Rotterdam study)2005Methodology
228Danilov AG, Zhivoglyad LN, Bondarenko OA, Olga M. Voroshilova OM, Aleksenko VY, Bogatyreva IMultidimensional phase-space analysis in assessing the health of patients with hypertensive disease in the north of Russia2015Hypertension
229Daraei P, Calligas JP, Katz E, Etra JW, Sethna ABReconstruction of upper lip avulsion after dog bite: Case report and review of literature2014Surgery, Review Article
230Darestani KD, Mirghazanfari SM, Moghaddam KG, Hejazi SLeech therapy for linear incisional skin-wound healing in rats2014Pharmacology, Wound Healing, Surgery
231Das BKAn overview on hirudotherapy/leech therapy2014Review Article
232Davies RW, McLoughlin NJThe effects of feeding regime on the growth and reproduction of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis)1996Hirudo medicinalis, Biology
233Davila VJ, Hoppe IC, Landi R, Ciminello FSThe effect of anchoring sutures on medicinal leech mortality2009Surgery, Biology
234De Los Mozos-Perez B, Font-Jimenez ILeeches in the intensive care unit: nursing care2007Surgery
235DeChalain TMBExploring the use of the medicinal leech: a clinical benefit-risk analysis.1996Surgery, Review Article
236DeChalain TMB Cohen SR, Burstein FDSuccessful use of leeches in the treatment of purpura fulminans1995Purpura fulminans, Dermatology
237DeChalain TMB, Jones GReplantation of the avulsed pinna: 100 percent survival with a single arterial anastomosis and substitution of leeches for a venous anastomosis1995Surgery
238Deckmyn H, Stassen JM, Vreys I et al.Calin from Hirudo medicinalis, an inhibitor of platelet adhesion to collagen, prevents platelet-rich thrombosis in hamsters1995Saliva, Calin, Saratin, Pharmacology
239Dejobert Y, Martin B, Thomas P & Bergoend HContact dermatitis from topical leech extract1991Pharmacovigilance, Dermatology, Dermatitis, Allergy
240Deka PM & Rajeev TPUnusual cause of hematuria2001Pharmacovigilance, Leeches
241Demirsoy A, Kasparek M & Akbulut APhenology of the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, in north-western Turkey2001Hirudo medicinalis, Demography, Phänology
242Derganc M & Zdravic FVenous congestion of flaps treated by application of leeches1980Surgery
243Desai MD & Rao PNCritical review of Jalaukavacharana2016Review, Ayurveda
244Deshmukh SSRole of leeches in acne vulgaris2017Dermatology, Acne
245Deuser EÜber Behandlungsmethoden von Distorsionen, Kontusionen und Hämatomen im Sportgeschehen1971Othopaedics, Sports Medicine, Haematoma, Distorsion, Contusion
246Dickinson MH & Lent CMFeeding behaviour and the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis1984Biology, Leeches
247Dickson WA, Boothman P & Hare KAn unusual source of hospital wound infection1984Surgery, Pharmacvogilance, Infections
248Diebschlag W & Nocker WLokale Anwendung von Blutegelwirkstoffen bei Sprunggelenkverletzungen1989Orthopaedics, Sports Medicine, Distorsion, Contusions, Ankle Ligament Injury, Exhirud
249Diebschlag W & Nocker WBehandlung akuter lateraler Sprunggelenksdistorsionen: plazebokontrollierte Doppelblindstudie zum Nachweis der Wirksamkeit von Exhirud®-Salbe Spezial1987Orthopaedics, Sports Medicine, Distorsion, Contusions, Ankle Ligament Injury, Exhirud
250DiMarco S, Fendrich G & Knecht RRecombinant Hirustasin: production in yeast, crystallization, and interaction with serine proteases1997Saliva, Hirustasin
251Dippenaar R, Smith J, Goussard P & Walters EMeningococcal Purpura fulminans treated with medical leeches2006Surgery, Paediatrics, Dermatology, Purpura fulminans, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
252Dogan S, Özgün MY, Akman C, Kalafat UM & Ocak TUse of primary sutures to stop persistent bleeding due to hirudotherapy2016Pharmacovigilance, Bleeding
253Döll WDie Bedeutung von Pseudomonas hirudinis für die Verdauungsphysiologie des medizinischen Blutegels1952Biology, Leeches, Pseudomonas
254Domogalla BNMR-Lösungsstruktur des Proteins Saratin, strukturelle Charakterisierung der Saratin-Kollagen-Interaktion und des Carausius morosus-hyperthrehalosämischen Hormons (Cam-Hr-TH-I)2005Saliva, Saratin, Calin
255Dong H, Ren JX, Wang JJ, Ding LS, Zhao JJ, Liu SY & Gao HMChinese medicinal leech: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities2016Chinese Medicine, Review Article
256Dörre U & Koeppen DRasche Schmerzreduktion bei guter Verträglichkeit2016General Practitioner, Haematoma, Gout, Pain, Osteoarthritis
257Dressler H & Ehmann GLokaltherapie von Hämorrhoiden I. und II. Grades. Wirksamkeit eines Kombinationspräparats mit standardisiertem Blutegelextrakt1992Haemorrhoids, Leech ointment
258Dunwiddie CT, Thornberry NA, Bull HG et al.Antistasin, a leech derived inhibitor of factor X a. Kinetic analysis of enzyme inhibition and identification of ther reactive site1989Saliva, Factor X a-Inhibitor
259Dunwiddie CT, Vlasuk GP & Nutt EMThe hydrolysis and resynthesis of a single reactive site peptide bond in recombinant antistasin by coagulation factor X a1992Saliva, Factor X a-Inhibitor
260Durrani KMTeach the leech the site to bite: another tip2010Surgery, Methodology, Application Procedure
261Durrant C, Townley WA, Ramkumar S & Khoo CTForgotten digital tourniquet: Salvage of an ischaemic finger by application of medicinal leeches2006Surgery
262Dwivedi APCase study of leech application in diabetic foot ulcer2012Dermatology, Wound Healing, Diabetic Foot, Ulcer
263Dwiwedi SPRole of jalaukavacharana (leech therapy) in the management of ankle sprain: A pilot study2014Orthopaedics, Ankle Ligament Distorsion
264Dykes IM & Macagno ERMolecular characterization and embryonic expression of innexins in the leech Hirudo medicinalis2006Biology, Nervous System
265Echchaoui A, Ahmad AA, Raboune M & Fejjal NThe therapeutic inspiration of the humble leech as reconstructive surgery: A brief overview2016Surgery, Review Article
266Ediweera ERHA review on leech application (Jalaukacharana) in Ayurveda and Sri Lankean traditional medicine2014Review Article
267El-Awady AMaggots and leeches make a comeback2003Review Article
268Eldor A, Orevi M & Rigbi MThe role of the leech in medical therapeutics1996Review Article, Saliva, Hirudin, Calin, Destabilase, Hirustasin, Factor X a-Inhibitor, Apyrase, PAF-Inhibitor, Adrenalin, Phlebitis, Lower Leg Ulcer
269Elliott JMPopulation size, weight distribution and food in a persistent population of the rare medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis2008Hirudo medicinalis, Biology
270Elliott JM & Kutschera UMedicinal leeches: historical use, ecology, genetics and conservation2011Hirudo medicinalis, Biology
271Elliott JM & Tullet PAThe medicinal leech1992Hirudo medicinalis, Biology
272Elyassi AR, Terres J & Rowshan HHMedicinal leech therapy on head and neck patients: A review of literature and proposed protocol2012Surgery
273Emtiazi M, Jokar SZ & Sadeghmanesh RNasal polyp in Iranian traditional medicine & conventional medicine2016ENT, Nasal Polyp
274Engels S, Schauseil S & Gehrt AKompendium Mikrobiologie2010Infections
275Erba F, Fiorucci L, Sommerhoff CP et al.Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of leech-derived tryptase inhibitor interaction with bovine tryptase and bovine trypsin2000Saliva, LDTI
276Erbacher UDie Blutegel-Therapie2011Review Article, Varicosis,Thrombophlebitis
277Erbacher UVenenerkrankungen. Blutegeltherapie2002Varicosis, Venous Diseases
278Eriksson BINeuartiger oraler Faktor Xa-Hemmer BAY 59-7939: Positive Ergebnisse der Phase II-Studie zur einmal täglichen Gabe2005Saliva, Factor Xa-Inhibitor
279Eroglu C, Hokelek M, Guneren E et al.Bacterial flow of Hirudo medicinalis and their antibiotic sensitivities in the Middle Black Sea Region, Turkey2001Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
280Etemadi J, Ardalan MR, Motavali R, Tubbs S & Shoja MMThrombotic microangiopathy as a complication of medicinal leech therapy2008Pharmacovigilance, Microangiopathy, Renal failure
281Evans J, Lunnis PJ, Gaunt PN et al.A case of septicaemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila1990Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas hydrophila, Sepsis
282Faller AZur Frage der Struktur der glatten Muskelzellen von Hirudo medicinalis1964Biology, Muscles
283Fazio MV, Economides JM & Pargavi ECombined subcutaneous heparinization and negative pressure wall suction as mechanical adjunct for digital replant salvage2016Surgery
284FDH Fachverband deutscher HeilpraktikerÜber die Blutegeltherapie2008Review Article, Therapy
285Federighi G, Macchi M, Bernardi R, Scuri R, Brunelli M, Durante M & Traina GDifferentially expressed genes in Hirudo medicinalis ganglia after acetyl-L-carnitine treatment2013Biology
286Felix R & van de Velde GVoelt de medicinal bloedzuiger Hirudo medicinalis zich wel zo lekker in Nederland (Hiruinea)?2000Biology
287Fenollar F, Fournier PE & Legre RUnusual case of Aeromonas sobria cellulitis associated with the use of leeches1999Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas
288Fields WSThe history of leeching and hirudin1991History
289Figueras MJUse of restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene for the identification of Aeromonas spp.2000Aeromonas
290Figueras MJClinical relevance of Aeromonas sM5032005Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas
291Figueras MJ, Aldea MJ, Fernandez N, Aspiroz C, Alperi A & Guarro JAeromonas hemolytic uremic syndrome. A case and a review of the literature2007Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas, Anticoagulation
292Figueras MJ, Alperi A, Guarro J & Martinez-Murcia AJGenotyping of isolates included in the description of a novel species should be mandatory2006Aeromonas
293Fink E, Nettelbeck R & Fritz HInhibition of of mast cell chymase by eglin c and antileukoprotease (HUSI-I). Indications for potential biological functions of these inhibitors1986Saliva, Eglin
294Fink E, Rehm H, Gippner C et al.The primary structure of bdellin B-3 from the leech Hirudo medicinalis1986Saliva, Bdellins
295Finney S, Seale L, Sawyer RT & Wallis RBTrigedin, a new peptidic inhibitor of the factor XIII ä, from the blood-sucking Haementeria ghilianii1997Haementeria ghilianii, Saliva, Anticoagulation
296Flecken P & Koeppen DFallbericht: Blutegel-Therapie beim Ohrhämatom2011Haematoma
297Flecken P & Michalsen AIndikationen2009Review Article, Therapy
298Flecken P & Michalsen AKontraindikationen.2009Review Article
299Fleischer NLeeches as therapeutic chances in birds2013Veterinary Medicine
300Flurry M, Natoli NB, Mesa JM & Moyer KETunneling of a leech into a free flap breast reconstruction2011Surgery, Pharmacovigilance
301Forgo I, Ehmann G & Burkard GLokale Therapie von stumpfen Sportverletzungen1989Orthopaedics, , Sports Medicine, Distorsion, Kontusion, Swelling, Exhirud
302Fort CWLeech therapy: Current uses for an old treatment2001Review Aricle, History, Therapy
303Foucher GUn vieux remède dans un pot neuf: la sangsue en microchirurgie1980Surgery
304Foucher G & Norris RWDistal and very distal digital replantations1992Surgery
305Foucher G, Henderson HR, Maneau M et al.Distal digital replantation: one of the best indications for microsurgery.1981Surgery
306Fox I, Dawson A, Loynds P et al.Anticoagulant activity of Hirulog, a direct thrombin inhibitor, in humans1993Saliva, Hirulog, Anticoagulation
307Fradkov A, Berzhnoy S, Barsova E et al.Enzyme from the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) that specifically splits endo-epsilon(-gamma-Glu)-Lys isopeptide bonds: cDNA cloning and protein primary structure1996Saliva, Destabilase
308Freytag KUntersuchungen über den Aufbau der Cuticula von Hirudo medicinalis1953Biology, Cell Structure
309Friedman J, Fabre J, Netscher D & Jaksic TTreatment of acute neonatal vascular injuries – the utility of multiple interventions1999Surgery, Paediatrics
310Friedrich HFaszination Blutegel2006Therapy, History
311Friedrich T, Kröger B, Koerwer WAn isopeptide bond splitting enzyme Hirudo medicinalis similar to ?-glutamyl transpeptidase1998Saliva, Destabilase
312Fritz HProteinase inhibitors in severe inflammatory processes (septic shock and experimental endotoxaemia): biochemical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects1980Saliva, Eglins, Bdellins, Anti-Inflammation
313Fritz H & Krejci KTrypsin-plasmin inhibitors (bdellins) from leeches1976Saliva, Bdellins
314Fritz H, Gebhardt M, Fink E et al.Verwendung wasserunlöslicher Enzymharze mit polyanionischer und polyamphoterer Harzmatrix zur Isolierung von Proteaseinhibitoren1969Saliva, Protease-Inhibitor
315Frodel JL, Barth P & Wagner JSalvage of partial facial soft tissue avulsions with medicinal leeches2004Surgery
316Frolov AK & Litvinenko RAEffect of medicinal leeches` antigens on the proliferative response of human blood mononuclear cells and cytokine production in vitro2015Breeding, Feeding, Biology, Pharmacology
317Frolov AK & Litvinenko RABasic morphofunctional features of pharmaceutical leech (Hirudo verbana Carena 1820) tissues in various forms of response after hirudotherapeutic procedures2015Breeding, Feeding, Biology, Pharmacology
318Fuchs J & Cannon CPHirulog in the treatment of unstable angina. Results of the Thrombin Inhibition in Myocardial Ischemia (TIMI)1995Hirulog, Anticoagulation, Leech Ointment, Angina Pectoris
319Funk GF, Bauman NM, Rinehart RJ & Mankarious LAMicrovascular replantation of a traumatically amputated ear1996Surgery
320Galatis HTUntersuchungen an den Haltungsbedingungen von Blutegeln für medizinische Zwecke2017Biology, Breeding
321Gaudry Q & Kristan WBDecision points: The factors influencing the decision to feed in the medicinal leech2012Biology
322Geishauser M, Schmiedl S, Knobloch K et al.Teach the leech to bite: another technical tip to tame Hirudo medicinalis2009Surgery
323Germann PBlutegeltherapie2004Therapy, History
324Gerry SP & Ellerby DJSerotonin modulates muscle function in the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana2011Biology
325Ghawi AMTreating colorectal cancer with a whole, leech saliva extract2016Cancer, Patent, Biopep Solutions
326Ghawi AMTreating a melanoma with a whole, leech saliva extract2016Cancer, Patent, Biopep Solutions
327Ghawi AM, Abdualkader AM, Merzouk A & Alaama MSeason variation and starvation period on the antithrombotic activity of leech saliva extract from the medicinal Malaysian leech, Hirudinaria Manillensis2012Breeding, Saliva, Anti-Thrombosis, Biology
328Ghawi AM, Abdualkader AM, Merzouk A & Alaama MFree radical scavenging activity of the medicinal Malaysian leech saliva extract, Hirudo manillensis2012Saliva
329Ghawi AM, Merzouk A, Abdualkader AM & Alaama MTreating bacterial skin infection with a whole leech saliva extract2017Skin Infection, Saliva, Patent
330Giacometti LLeeching in the twentieth century1987Therapy, Cardiology
331Gideroglu K, Yildirim S, Akan M & Akoz TImmediate use of medicinal leeches to salvage venous congested reverse pedicled neurocutaneous flaps2003Surgery
332Gideroglu K, Yildirim S, Akan M et al.Successful results with the use of a new reconstruction material for soft tissue defects of the lower extremity: neurocutaneous flaps2004Surgery
333Gileva OS & Mumcuoglu KYHirudotherapy2013Review Article, History
334Gilkes MCase notes. Leech-bite of the cornea1957Pharmacology, Leeches
335Giltner CL, Bobenchik AM, Uslan DZ, Deville JG & Humphries RMCiprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila cellulitis following leech therapy2013Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas hydrophila, Resistance to Antibiotics
336Gilyova OSHirudotherapy and the skin2007Dermatology, Leg Ulcer, Wound Healing
337Gilyova OS, Korobeinikova GA & Gibidullina NBExperimental studies on the healing and anti-inflammatory effects of leeching2007Anti-Inflammation, Wound Healing
338Ginsberg JS, Nurmohamed MT, Gent M et al.Use of hirulog in the prevention of venous thrombosis after hip or knee surgery1994Hirulog, Anticoagulation, Thrombosis, Surgery, Orthopaedics, Leech Ointment
339Giri RVRole of Ayurvedic treatments -Ksharakarma (Caustic Cautery) and Jalaukavacharana (Hirudotherapy) in the management of necrotising fascitis - A case study2016Ayurveda, fascitis
340Glade MMedicinal leeches to relieve severe venous congestion following tissue replantation or free-flap tissue grafting2004Surgery
341Glaeser SP, Galatis H, Martin K & Kämpfer PFlavobacterium cutihirudinis sp. nov., isolated from Hirudo verbana2013Biology, Pharmacology, Flavobacteria
342Gödemerdan A, Arusan S, Bayar B & Saglam NMedicinal leeches and hirudotherapy2011Review Article
343Godfrey KUse of leeches and leech saliva in clinical practice1997Review Article, Therapy
344Goessl C, Steffen-Wilcke K & Miller KLeech therapy for massive scrotal haematoma following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty1997Surgery, Urology, Haematoma
345Golden MA, Quinn JJ & Partington MTLeech therapy in digital replantation1995Surgery
346Gond P, Rani R & Shringi MKA clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of leech therapy and panchatikta ghrita in the management of psoriasis2012Dermatology, Psoriasis
347Gönen I, Özsahin M, Turan H, Uslu M, Celbek G, Yildirim M & Ataoglu SAcinetobacter infection developed after leech therapy in a patient with gonarthrosis: A case report2013Pharmacology, Infections, Acinetobacter
348Gosselin BSalvage of near-total tongue amputation with hirudotherapy2010Surgery
349Graeve TIsolierung und Kultivierung von Speicheldrüsenzellen des Hirudo medicinalis zur Hirudingewinnung unter in vitro-Bedingungen.1988Saliva, Hirudin
350Graf JDiverse restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns oft he PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes in Aeromonas veronii strains and possible misidentification of Aeromas species1999Aeromonas
351Graf JDie Bakterienflora des medizinischen Blutegels Hirudo medicinalis2009Infections
352Graf JSymbiosis of Aeromonas and Hirudo medicinalis the medicinal leech2000Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas hydrophila, Infections
353Graf JThe effect of symbionts on the physiology of Hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech2002Hirudo medicinalis, Aeromonas, Infections
354Graf JDer medizinische Blutegel in der Pferdephysiotherapie2017Veterinary Medicine, Horses
355Graf J, Kikuchi Y & Rio RVMLeeches and their microbiota: naturally simple symbiosis models2006Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas
356Graham CEThumb paronychia treated with leeches1992Anti-Inflammation, Paronychia
357Graham CELeeches1995Therapy
358Granzow JW, Armstrong MB & Panthaki ZJA simple method for the control of medicinal leeches2004Surgery, Methodology
359Grau D, Masson R, Villiet M & Lamy BLeech management before application on patient: a nationwide survey of practices in French university hospitals2018Pharmacovigilance, Procedure, Infctions
360Grebe WDie lokale Anwendung von Blutegelwirkstoffen bei Sportverletzungen1987Sports Medicine, Contusion, Distorsion, Haematoma
361Green C & Gilby JAThe medicinal leech1983Review Article, Pharmacovigilance, Therapy
362Green IEThe use and husbandry of leeches in plastic surgery units – A survey1988Review Article, Surgery
363Green PA & Shafritz AMedicinal leech use in microsurgery2010Review Article, Surgery
364Grimaldi AOrigin and fate of hematopoetic stem precursor cells in the leech Hirudo medicinalis2016Biology, Haematopoiesis
365Grimaldi A, Banfi S, Bianchi C et al.The leech: a novel invertebrate model for studying muscle regeneration and diseases2009Hirudo medicinalis, Biology, Pharmacology
366Gröbe A, Michalsen A, Hanken H, Schmelzle R, Heiland M & Blessmann MLeech Therapy in Reconstructive Maxillofacial Surgery2012Surgery
367Gronwald W, Bomke J, Maurer T et al.Structure of the leech protein saratin and characterization of its binding to collagen2008Saliva, Calin, Saratin
368Gross MP & Apesos JThe use of leeches for treatment of venous congestion of the nipple following breast surgery1992Surgery
369Groß UDer medizinische Blutegel, Hirudo medicinalis, gestern und heute1991Saliva, Hirudin, Hyaluronidasis, Apyrasis, Kollagenasis
370Groß U & Roth MZur Biochemie der Blutegelsekrete2009Saliva
371Grossman MD & Karlovitz ALingual trauma: The use of medicinal leeches in the treatment of massive lingual hematoma1998Haematoma, Dentistry, Implant
372Grumbine NA & Nicholas AFeature: Reviving an ancient therapy to manage2003Review Article, History
373Grunwald S & Koeppen DMedizinische Blutegel, Physiotherapie und gruppenspezifische Bewegungsprogramme2013Osteoarthritis
374Gujjanwar S, Asutkar SG & Dwiwedi SKThe efficacy of Jallaukavacharan (leech therapy) in Mukhdushika (Acne)2015Acne
375Gunawan F, Wibowo YR, Bunawan NC & Turner JHControversy: Hirudotherapy (leech therapy) as an alternative treatment for osteoarthritis2015Osteoarthritis
376Güneren E, Erolu I, Akba H, Uysal OA, Hokelek M & Erolu CThe use of Hirudo medicinalis in nipple-areolar congestion2000Surgery
377Gupta AK, Parida A, Singh AK & Panda RKA clinical study of Virechana karma and Jaloukavacharana (leech therapy) in Ekakushta w.s.r to psoriasis2015Dermatology, Psoriasis
378Gupta K, Chaudhary S & Singh OPPotent effect of leech therapy and aswagandha ghrita on oxidative stress and IL-1 level in the patient of osteoarthritis (sandhigata vata)2017Oxidative Stress, Osteoarthritis
379Gupta S, Patil S, Patil V & Singh SLiterary and scientific review of leech therapy in Ayurveda and modern science2017Review, Ayurveda
380Güven RTreatment of a patient in hemorrhagic shock due to leech bite with tranexamic acid2016Pharmacovigilance, Bleeding
381Haberhauser NLieber Blutegel oder Katharidenpflaster als eine Operation2003Therapy
382Habrmanova M, Slezak V, Galatova H & Takac PHirudotherapy in treatment of different chronic venous diseases2014Dermatology, Venous Congestion
383Hach W & Hach-Wunderle VMedizinhistorische Betrachtungen über die Erforschung der Venenthrombose bis zum Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts1999History, Thrombosis
384Hach W, Scholz S & Hach-Wunderle VDie Therapie mit Blutegeln in der Medizin und Gefäßmedizin2005History, Biology, Vascular Medicine
385Hach-Wunderle VHirudin in der Gefäßchirurgie1997Hirudin, Surgery
386Hahn LÜber die Spaltung der Hyaluronsäure durch Mucopolysaccharasen aus Blutegel und Cl. perfringens.1945Saliva, Hyaluronidasis
387Hajtalebi H, Iurigh HK & Hajtalebi HRTreatment of diabetic foot ulcer in a 74-year-old female patient based on Iranian traditional medicine in Bojnurd2017Dermatology, Diabetic Foot, Ulcer, Wound Healing
388Hajtalebi H, Iurigh HK & Hajtalebi HRTreatment of diabetic foot ulcer in a 58-year old Turkman patient2016Dermatology, Diabetic Foot, Ulcer, Wound Healing
389Hajtalebi H, Iurigh HK & Hajtalebi HRTreatment of leg venous congestion using Iranian leech therapy after orthopedic surgery in a 12-year adolescent with double and open fracture of distal of right leg and ankle dislocation2017Surgery, Haematoma
390Hajtalebi H, Iurigh HK & Hajtalebi HRTreatment of systemic lupus erythematosus in a 44-year-old female patient according to Iranian traditional medicine in Bojnurd2017Lupus erythematodus
391Hajtalebi H, Iurigh HK & Hajtalebi HRInvestigating the treatment status of 10 patients with second and third degree diabetic foot ulcers based on the therapeutic protocols of Iranian traditional medicine in Bojnurd from 2015-20162017Diabetic Foot, Wound Healing
392Hakim J, Smith PA, Cao D, Rosales A, Naguib N, Nguyen A, Modder A, Ehrhardt D, Rivas-Bustamente M, Hunt R & Dietrich JFReinventing old medicine with new methodology: A mechanical leech2016Mechanical Leech
393Hammersen FDas Muskelgefüge in der Pharynxwand von Hirudo medicinalis und Haemopis sanguisuga1963Biology, Muscles
394Hammersen F & Pokahe AElektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen zur Epithelstruktur im Magen-Darmkanal von Hirudo medicinalis1972Biology, Digestion
395Hanif H, Nouri M & Amarjamshidi AMedicinal leech therapy in neurosurgical practice2012Ischialgia, Thrombosis
396Hansen JLeeches, lancets and fleams. Will bloodletting rejoin the medical mainstream?1982Therapy, Venesection
397Hardia A, Pol H & Pol SA study to evaluate the efficacy of Jalaukavacharan in Vyanga vis-a-vis melasma2017Dermatology, Hyperpigmentation
398Harsfalvi J, Stassen JM, Hoylaerts MF et al.Calin from Hirudo medicinalis, an inhibitor of von Willebrand factor binding to collagen under static and flow conditions1995Saliva, Calin
399Hartig GK, Connor NP, Heisey DM & Conforti MLComparing a mechanical device with medicinal leeches for treating venous congestion2003Surgery, Pharmacology, Mechanical Leech
400Hartig GK, Connor NP, Warner TF, Heisey DM, Sarmadi M & Conforti MLTesting a device to replace the leech for treating venous congestion2003Pharmacology, Surgery, Mechanical Leech
401Hartnett JCThe care and use of medicinal leeches in 19th century pharmacy and therapeutics1972History
402Hartrampf CR, Drazan L & Noel RTA mechanical leech for transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps1993Surgery, Mechanical Leech
403Harun A, Kruer RM, Lee A, Boahene K, Byrne PJ & Richmon JDExperience with bivalirudin for adjunct treatment of venous congestion of head and neck reconstructive flaps2018Surgery, Venous Congestion, Hirudin
404Harvey RP, Degryse E, Stefan I et al.Cloning and expression of cDNA coding for the anticoagulant Hirudin from the blood sucking leech, Hirudo medicinalis1986Saliva, Hirudin
405Haupt JFunction and ultrastructure of the nephridium of Hirudo medicinalis1974Biology
406Hauptmann J & Kaiser BAnticoagulant and antithrombotic action of the factor Xa inhibitor antistasin (ATS)1993Saliva, Faktor Xa-Inhibitor
407Hauptstein PDie Blutegelbehandlung der Thrombophlebitis nach Operation und im Wochenbett1934Thrombophlebitis
408Hauswirth SHirudopunktur – Akupunktur mit Blutegeln2014Veterinary Medicine, Acupuncture
409Haycox CL, Odland PB, Coltrera MD & Raugi GJIndications and complications of medicinal leech therapy1995Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
410Haycraft JBOn the action of a secretion obtained from the medicinal leech on the coagulation of blood1884Hirudin
411Hayden RE, Phillips JG & McLear PWLeeches. Objective monitoring of altered perfusion in congested flaps1988Surgery, Blood Flow Measurement
412Heckmann JG, Dütsch M & Neundörfer BAuthor`s reply2006Neurology, Haematoma
413Heckmann JG, Dütsch M, Neundörfer B, Dütsch F & Hartung ULeech therapy in the treatment of median nerve compression due to forearm haematoma2005Neurology, Haematoma
414Heisler AAus meinen Krankenblättern1936Therapy
415Heldt TJAllergy to leeches1961Pharmacovigilance, Dermatology, Allergy, History
416Henderson HP, Matti B, Laing AG et al.Avulsion of the scalp treated by microvascular repair: the use of leeches for postoperative decongestion1983Surgery
417Henderson LP, Kuffler DP, Nicholls J & Zhang RStructural and functional analysis of synaptic transmission between identified leech neurons in culture1983Biology
418Hendrick RG & Tiwari PSuccessful replantation of upper lip avulsion injury using an arterialized venous anastomosis2012Surgery
419Henne ABlutegeltherapie bei Tieren2010Veterinary Medicine
420Henriot JM, Chaillot B, Rochette L & Labrude PLa sangsue Hirudo medicinalis: utilisations cliniques de l‘animal et perspectives thérapeutiques de l‘hirudine1990Review Article, Therapy
421Herlin C, Bertheuil N, Bekara F, Bossiere F, Sinna R & Chaput BLeech therapy in flap salvage: Systematic review and practical recommendations2017Surgery, Procedure Review Article
422Hermansdorfer J, Lineaweaver W, Follansbee S, Valauri FA & Buncke HJAntibiotic sensitivities of Aeromonas hydrophila cultured from medical leeches1988Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas, Surgery
423Herter KTemperaturversuche mit Egeln1929Biology, Hirudo medicinalis
424Herter KDer medizinische Blutegel und seine Verwandten1968Handbook
425Herter KFang, Pflege und Zucht der deutschen Süßwasseregel1992Biology
426Heüveldop SBlutegeltherapie beim Pferd2005Veterinary Medicine
427Hilal R & Ali TLeech therapy in the osteoarthritis of knee joint2016Osteoarthritis
428Hilbring ADer medizinische Blutegel Hirudo sp.2005Hirudo medicinalis, Biology
429Hildebrandt JP & Lemke SSmall bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis2011Saliva, Review Article
430Hirst GKEffect of polysaccharide-splitting enzyme on streptococcal infection1941Saliva, Antibiosis
431Hochberg MCMultidisciplinary integrative approach to treating knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis2003Osteoarthritis
432Hokelek M, Güneren E & Eroglu CAn experimental study to sterilize medicinal leeches2002Pharmacovigilance, Infections
433Hong SJ, Sawyer R & Kang KW:Prolonged bleeding from the bite of the asian medicinal leech hirudo nipponica1999Pharmacovigilance
434Horowitz SMedicinal leeches in modern medicine2005Review Article, Therapy
435Hosnuter M, Demircan N, Uenalacak M et al.An alternative treatment method rediscovered by modern medicine: Hirudotherapy2003History
436Houschyar KS, Momeni A, Maon ZN, Pyles MN, Jew OS, Strathe M & Michalsen AMedical leech therapy in plastic reconstructive surgery2015Review Article, Surgery
437Hovingh P & Linker AHyaluronidase activity in leeches (Hirudinea)1999Saliva, Hyaluronidasis
438Hufeland CWBlutentziehunegn (Aderlass und Blutegel)1993Venesection
439Hullett JS, Spinnato GG & Ziccardi VTreatment of an ear laceration with adjunctive leech therapy: a case report2007Surgery
440Hussey AJ & Kelly JLMicrosurgical replantation of an ear with no venous repair2010Surgery
441Hwang K, Kim HM & Kim YSMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus following leech application at a congested flap after a mastectomy2017Pharmacovigilance, Resistant Infection
442Hyson JMLeech therapy: a history2005History
443Iafolla AKMedicinal leeches in the postoperative care of bladder exstrophy1995Surgery, Urology, Paediatrics
444Icke, CPharmakologische Untersuchungen von Fusionsproteinen mit gerinnungshemmenden und profibrinolytischen Eigenschaften2002Pharmacology, Anticoagulation, Fibrinolysis
445Ikiczeli I, Aysarogullari L, Sözüer E, Yurumez Y & Akdur OBleeding due to a medicinal leech bite2005Pharmacovigilance, Bleeding
446Indergand S & Graf JIngested blood contributes to the specifity of the symbiosis of Aeromonas Veronii Biovar Sobria and Hirudo medicinalis2000Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas
447Ingole AR, Dhabarde DM, Kamble MA & Potnis WModern touch to traditional leech therapy: A review2013Pharmacology, Mechanical Leech
448Iqbal A, Haider H, Shah A, Ahmad Z & Islam NManagement of keloid by hirudotherapy2016Dermatology, Keloid
449Iqbal A, Jan A, Huma, Sha A, Ahmad Z, Islam N, Naine M, Wajdil MA, Tariq S & Salroo INManagement of keloid by hirudotherapy: A latest non surgical approach2015Dermatology, Keloid
450Irish JC, Gullane PJ, Mulholland S & Neligan PCMedicinal leech in head and neck reconstruction2000Surgery
451Isakhanyan GS & Arutiunian VMMedizinische Blutegel: Ihre medizinische Verwendung in der therapeutischen Klinik1991Review Article, Therapy
452Isakhanyan GS, Tumasian KS, Barsegian ZE et al.Hirudin therapy and blood coagulability1992Anticoagulation, Cardiology, Respiratory Diseases, Rheumatism
453Isgar B & Turner AGLarge scrotal haematoma treated with medicinal leeches1989Urology, Haematoma
454Isik M, Ugur M, Yakisan RS, Sari T & Yilmaz NComparison of the effectiveness of medicinal leech and TENS therapy in the treatment of primary osteoarthritis of the knee2016Osteoarthritis
455Itrat M & Zarnigar HNHistorical aspects of leech therapy: A critical review2013History
456Iveson-Iveson JLeeches in medicine: they still hang on!1978Therapy
457Iwakawa A, Gasic TB, Viner ED & Gasic GJPromotion of lung tumor colonization in mice by the synthetic thrombin inhibitor (no. 805) and its reversal by leech salivary gland extracts1986Pharmacology, Tumour
458Izharul H, Faiyaz, A & Mohd SScientific efficiency of leech remedy in varicose ulcer2011Varicosis, Leg Ulcer
459Jagannathan M, Barthwal V & Devale MAesthetic and effective leech application2009Surgery
460Jahangir U, Akram M & Urooj SLeech therapy in dermatology2016Dermatology, Review Article
461Jain S & Anita SElixir action of Ayurveda in Khalitya2016Hair loss, Alopecia, Ayurveda
462Janda JM & Abbott SLEvolving concepts regarding the genus Aeromonas: an expanding panorama of species, disease presentations, and unanswered questions.1998Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas
463Janda JM & Abbott SLThe Genus Aeromonas: Taxonomy, Pathogenicity, and Infection2010Aeromonas, Review Article
464Jauker F & Clauss WBlutsauger in der Forschung2003Hirudo medicinalis, Biology
465Javed AEffect of leech application in prolapsed thrombosed hemorrhoid: A case study2016Haemorrhoids, Thrombosis
466Jha K, Garg A, Narany R & Das SHirudotherapy in Medicine and Dentistry2015Review Article
467Jobst DVon Blutegeln, Schröpfköpfen und Co2008Therapy
468Johnson PHHirudin: Clinical potential of a thrombin inhibitor1994Saliva, Hirudin, Anticoagulation
469Jones CP & Sawyer RTHeparin inhibits mammalian, but not leech, Hyaluronidase1989Pharmacology, Interactions, Heparin, Hyaluronidasis
470Jopen-Wolff CBDer medizinische Blutegel und seine Wirkstoffe1984Saliva
471Jose M, Varghese J & Babu ASalvage of venous congestion using medicinal leeches for traumatic nasal flap2015Surgery
472Joslin J, Biondid A, Walker K & Zanglin NA comprehensive review of Hirudiniasis: From historic uses of leeches to modern treatments of their bites2017Hiurudiniasis, Review Article
473Judson WECardiohemodynamic effects of venous congestion of legs or phlebotomy in patients with and without heart failure1955Cardio-vascular System, Cardiology, Venesection
474Jueg WDer medizinische Blutegel (Hirudo medicinalis LINNAEUS, 1758) in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern2009Hirudo medicinalis, Biology, Demography
475Juilleret M, Marquet M, Riehl-Bellon N et al.Expression and secretion in S. cerevisia of biologically active leech Hirudin1988Saliva, Hirudin
476Julian DG, Simpson JM, Cadigan PJ et al.A controlled trial of GL enzyme in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction1988Saliva, Hyaluronidasis, Hyaglosidasis, Cardiology, Cardiovascular System, Myocardial Infarction
477Jung F, Koscielny J, Mrowietz C et al.Einfluss der Hämodilution auf den systemischen und den Kapillarhämatokrit1990Cardiology, Cardiovascular System,
478Jung JA, Kim YW & Kang SRReconstruction of unexpected huge chart wall defect after recurrent breast cancer excision using a TRAM flap combined with partial Latissimus Dorsi muscle flap2013Surgery
479Junger WG, Hallstrom S, Redl H & Schlag GInhibition of human, bovine, and baboon neutrophil elastase with eglin c and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor1992Saliva, Eglin
480Jurk DDie Behandlung der Schultersteife mit dem medizinischen Blutegel1990Orthopaedics, Myogelosis
481Jyothsna S, Verma SK, Sreevani M & Kiran TUA review of the therapeutic applications of leech2016Surgery, Review Article
482Kadu AJalaukavacharan (Leech) in Anjananamika (External Hordeolum)2015Dermatology, Hordeolum, Stye, Eyelid
483Kadu AS, Rajput DS & Deshmuk SGManagement of recurrent nasal vestibular furunculosis by jalaukavacharana and palliative treatment2017Dermatology, Furuncle
484Kaehler Schweizer DThérapie par les sangsues2008Handbook
485Kaehler Schweizer DBlutegelbehandlung bei schweren Hämatomen in der Hausarztpraxis2007Haematoma
486Kaehler Schweizer DBlutegeltherapie bei Polycythaemia vera2011Polycythaemia vera
487Kaehler Schweizer D & Westendorff MHirudotherapie. Ein Handbuch der Blutegel-Therapie2013Handbook
488Kaehler Schweizer D & Westendorff MDie Blutegeltherapie. Wissenswertes für Patienten zur Hirudotherapie2014Patient Brochure
489Kalbermatten DF, Rieger UM, Uike K, Erba F, Laifer G, Hintermann B & Pierer GAeromonas hydrophila-Infektion nach Therapie mit Hirudo medicinalis bei venöser Stauung nach freiem mikrovaskulären osteo-(myo-)kutanen Gewebetransfer – Empfehlungen zur erfolgreichen Therapie2007Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
490Kalender ME, Comez G, Sevinc A, Dirier A & Camci CLeech therapy for symptomatic relief from cancer pain2010Oncology, Cancer Pain
491Kameneva MV, Parfenov AS, Chirkova LD & Baskova IPPiyavit – a complex preparation from the medicinal leech improves blood rheology and decreases platelet aggregation.1995Saliva, Piyavit, Leech Ointment
492Kampowski T, Eberhard L, Gallenmüller F, Speck T & Poppinga SFunctional morphology of suctions discs and attachment performance of the Mediterranean medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana Carena)2016Biology
493Kandarian B, Sethi J, Wu A, Baker W, Yazdami N, Kym E, Sanchez A, Edsall L, Gaasterland T & Macagno EThe medicinal leech genome encodes 21 innexin genes: Different combinations are expressed by central neurons2012Biology
494Kang IG, Jung JH, Kim ST & Kim YJReconstruction of a columellar defect with a nasolabial island flap2014Surgery
495Karadag AS, Calka O, Akdeniz N & Cecen IA case of irritant contact dermatitis with leech2011Pharmacovigilance, Allergy, Dermatology, Dermatitis
496Karimi M & Soroushzadeh SMVenous leg ulcer treatment in an 85-year-old female patient based on Iranian traditional medicine in Tehran in 20162017Dermatology, Ulcer
497Kashiwagi K, Hashimoto I, Abe Y, Kotsu K, Yamano M & Nakanishi HQuantitative analysis of hemodynamics of congested island flaps under leech therapy2013Pharmacology, Surgery, Doppler Fluorimetry
498Kasparek M, Demirsoy A, Akbulut A et al.Distribution and status of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis L.) in Turkey2000Hirudo medicinalis, Demography
499Kassin VU & Bajanov NNThe importance of leech therapy in patients with ‘malignant‘ forms of facial furuncles and carbuncles2007Dermatology, Furuncles
500Katariya P, Pawaskar M, Joglekar N, Katariya Y & Datye AAn exploratory prospective clinical study to assess the combined effect of Virechana and Raklamokshana in Vicharchika - A case study2017Dermatology, Itching, Wound Healing
501Katiyar S, Kuma B & Misra SKHolistic review of Jaluka - A natural surgical tool in the management of Ashra (Haemorrhoids)2017Review, Haemorrhoids
502Kaundal R, Sharma OP, Garg GK & Hiremath JLeech therapy in perianal haematoma – A case report2015Dermatology, Haematoma
503Kaya B, Bat O, Bulut NE, Altun H & Memisoglu KProlonged venous bleeding due to traditional treatment with leech bite: a case report2011Pharmacovigilance, Bleeding, Varicosis
504Keim AStudies on the host specifity of the medicinal blood leech Hirudo medicinalis1993Pharmacovigilance, Hirudo medicinalis, Infections
505Keller AKrampfadern, Venenentzündungen und Hämorrhoiden1963Varicosis, Phlebitis, Haemorrhoids, Venous Inflammation
506Kemperdick GKRheumatische Erkrankungen lindern1990Rheumatism
507Kenel CLes sangsues, l‘hirudine, leurs applications en ophthalmologie1946Ophthalmology
508Khan JARole of leech therapy in osteoarthritis2012Orthopaedics, Osteoarthritis
509Khan SM & Ansari ANEffects of leech therapy (Irsal-e Alaq) and Unani formulation (Ihifal Sagheer with Zanjabeel) in the management of varicose veins: An open, randomized, standard controlled three groups clinical trial2015Dermatology, Varicosis
510Khanna V, Raina A, Bhardwaj A, Sharma A & Khajuria AEffect of leech application in thrombosed haemorrhoid2017Dermatology, Haemorrhoids
511Khelifa E, Kaya G & Laffitte ECutaneous pseudolymphomas after leech therapy2013Dermatology, Pharmacovigilance, Pseudolymphoma
512Kikuchi Y & Graf JSpatial and temporal population dynamics of a natural occurring two-species microbial community inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech2007Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas
513Kikuchi Y, Bomar L & Graf JStratified bacterial community in the bladder of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana2009Biology, Aeromonas hydrophila
514Kim JH, Kim JM, Park JW, Hwang JH & Kim KSReconstruction of the medial canthus using an ipsilateral paramedian forehead flap2013Surgery
515Kim KS, Kim ES, Hwang JH & Lee SYMicrosurgical replantation of a partial helix of the ear2009Surgery
516Kind GM, Buncke GM, Placik OJ, Jansen DA, D`Amore T & Buncke HJTotal ear replantation1997Surgery
517Kirk RGW & Pemberton NRe-imagining bleeders: The medicinal leech in the nineteenth century bloodletting encounter2011History
518Klügel REin Biss, der Schmerzen lindern kann2016Orthopaedics
519Klügel RMitteilung der DGTHA2016German Association of Hirudotherapy DGTHA
520Knobloch K, Gohritz A, Busch K, Spies M & Vogt PMHirudo medicinalis – Anwendungen in der plastischen und rekonstruktiven Mikrochirurgie – Eine Literaturübersicht2007Review Article, Surgery, Doppler-Fluorimetry, Pharmacology
521Koca CF, Cicek MT & Kayikcioglu EAn unusual body in the larynx: A live leech in the larynx2016Casuality, Wild Leeches
522Kocent LS & Spinner SSLeech therapy: New procedures for an old treatment1992Therapy
523Koch CA, Olsen SM & Moore EJUse of the medicinal leech for salvage of venous congested microvascular free flaps of the head and neck2011Surgery
524Koch CA, Olsen SM, Moore EJ et al.Leech bites: massive bleeding, coagulation profile disorders, and severe anemia2008Pharmacovigilance, Bleeding
525Koeppen DZum Einsatz der Blutegeltherapie bei Arthrosen2008Review Article, Osteoarthritis
526Koeppen DDie zunehmende Bedeutung der Blutegeltherapie auf nationaler, europäischer und internationaler Ebene – Informationen zu rechtlichen und organisatorischen Rahmenbedingungen2014Legal Position of Leech Therapy
527Koeppen DBlutegeltherapie: Mehr als ein Ausleitungsverfahren2016Review Article
528Koeppen D, Aurich M & Rampp TMedicinal leech therapy in pain syndromes: a narrative review2014Review Article, Pain
529Konyrtaeva NN, Grjibovski AM, Kausova GK, Zhernov VA & Kalmataeva ZALeech therapy in treatment of cardiovascular diseases2015Review Article, Cardiology, Hypertension
530Konyrtaeva NN, Ivanov SV, Kausova GK, Zharnov VA & Grjibovski AMLeech therapy in Kazakhstan: Patient`s characteristics and compliance with treatment2016Demography
531Kornreich L & Kleinhaus ALPostingestive chemosensation and feeding by leeches1999Hirudo medicinalis, Biology, Feeding, Artificial Blood
532Kose A, Zengin S, Kose B, Gunay N, Yildirim C, Kilinc H & Togun ILeech bites: massive bleeding, coagulation profile disorders, and severe anemia2008Pharmacovigilance, Bleeding
533Köse R, Mordeniz C & Sanli CUse of expanded reverse sural artery flap in lower extremity reconstruction2011Surgery
534Köstering H, König F, Kositzki H et al.Thrombenbehandlung durch Hirudin. Untersuchungen über die Wirkung der Exhirud-Blutegelsalbe auf gleichstrominduzierte Thromben in der Ohrvene der Maus1973Thrombosis, Anticoagulation, Exhirud, Pharmacology, Leech Ointment
535Kovalenko MV & Utevsky SYSize structure and comparative phenology of syntopic population of Hirudo verbana and Hirudo medicinalis in Eastern Ukraine2012Biology, Hirudo medicinalis
536Kozin SHPollicization: The concept, technical details, and outcome2012Surgery
537Kraemer BA, Korber KE, Aquino TI & Engleman AUse of leeches in plastic and reconstructive surgery: a review.1988Review Article, Surgery
538Krauß HÜber die Bewährung der Blutegel- und Schröpfbehandlung beim peripheren Rheumatismus1948Rheumatism
539Kretzberg J, Pirschel F, Fathiazar E & Hilgen GEncoding of tactile stimuli by mechanoreceptors and interneurons of the medicinal leech2016Biology, Nervous System
540Kruer RM, Barton CA, Roberti G, Gilbert B & McMillian WDAntimicrobial prophylaxis during Hirudo medicinalis therapy: A multicenter study2014Surgery, Pharmacovigilance
541Krug EDer medizinische Blutegel und seine therapeutische Verwendung1985Therapy
542Kucur C, Durmus K, Uysal IO, Old M, Agrawal A, Arshad H, Teknos TN & Ozer EManagement of complications and compromised free flaps following major head and neck surgery2015Surgery, Review Article, Haematoma
543Kukova G, Gerber PA, Antal AS & Horney BAllergy sucks: leeches may also be harmful2010Pharmacovigilance, Allergy, Dermatology, Dermatitis
544Kulkarni NH & Patil SNClinical evaluation of leeching and surgical excision in the management of external thrombosed haemorrhoids2015Dermatology, Haemorrhoids
545Kumar M, Manjusha R & Baghela DBA clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of Karpuradi Kuzhampu Anjana and Jalaukavacharana in the management of praklinnavartma (blepharitis)2015Blepharitis, Eye Disease
546Kumar N, Mohindra R, Mohan B & Wander GSGastrointestinal bleed after leeching in a patient on aspirin therapy2005Pharmacovigilance, Bleeding
547Kumar PH, Kumar RR & Rao RREfficacy of leech therapy and ayurvedic compound in vitiligo: A quasi experimental study2012Dermatology, Vitiligo
548Kumar S, Dobos GJ & Rampp TClinical significance of leech therapy in Indian medicine2013Biology, Dermatology, Wound Healing, History
549Kumar SAAnti inflammatory effect of leech therapy in the patients of psoriasis (EK KUSTHA)2012Psoriasis, Inflammation
550Kumar SA & Prakash SOAnalgesic and anti inflammatory effect of leech therapy (Jalaukavcharan) in the patients of osteoarthritis (Sandhigata Vata)2012Orthopaedics, Osteoarthritis
551Kumar SA & Prakash SOAnalgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of leech therapy in the management of arthritis2011Orthopaedics, Osteoarthritis
552Kumar SBApplication of leech (Jalauka) therapy on the management of Vatarakta (gout)2016Gout
553Kumar VD, Kumar CP, Kumar SA & Singh OPA critical review on historical aspects of jalaukavacharan (hirudotherapy)2012History
554Küng LG & Lüscher NJHirudo medicinalis. Helfer in der Not1986Surgery, History
555Kuppe KODer Blutegel in der ärztlichen Praxis1977Handbook
556Kutakow OIHirudinationsbehandlung bei Thrombophlebitis1965Thrombophlebitis
557Kutschera USpecies concepts: leeches versus bacteria2004Taxonomy, Hirudo medicinalis, Infections
558Kutschera UThe infamous blood suckers from Lacus verbanus2006Taxonomy, Hirudo medicinalis, Hirudo verbana
559Kutschera UThe Hirudo medicinalis species complex2012Taxonomy, Hirudo medicinalis, Hirudo verbana, Biology
560Kutschera UHilfreiche Blutsauger in der Medizin und ihre Systematik2012Taxonomy, Hirudo medicinalis, Hirudo verbana
561Kutschera U & Roth MCannibalism in a population of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis)2005Hirudo medicinalis, Biology, Leech Cannibalism
562Kutschera U & Roth MCocon deposition and cluster formation in populations of the medicinal leech (genus Hirudo)2006Hirudo medicinalis, Biology, Chrysalis
563Kutschera U, Langguth H, Kuo DH, Weisblat DA & Shankland MDescription of a new leech species from North America, Helbdella ausinensis n.sp. (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) with observations on its feeding behaviour2013Biology
564Kutschera U, Roth M & Ewert JDFeeding on Bufoid Toads and Occurrence of Hyparasitism in a Population of the Medicinal Leech (Hirudo verbena Carena 1820)2010Hirudo verbana, Biology, Leech Cannibalism, Feeding
565Kvist S, Min GS & Siddal MEDiversity and selective pressures of anticoagulants in three medicinal leeches (Hirudinida, Hirudinidae, Macrobdellidae)2013Biology, Anticoagulation
566Kvist S, Oceguera-Figueroa A, Siddall ME & Erseus CBarcoding, types and the Hirudo files: Using information content to critically evaluate the identity of DNA barcodes2010Biology
567Labinsky AYEffectiveness of nonpharmacological therapy of patients with ischemic stroke (Hirudotherapy combined with nutritional correction)2015Cerebrovascular Disease, Stroke
568Lamb DG & Calabrese RLNeural circuits controlling behavior and autonomic functions in medicinal leeches2011Biology, Nervous System
569Lamy B, Kodjo A, the coIBHV Study Group & Laurent FProspective nationwide study of Aeromonas infection in France2009Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas
570Lancellot MRelying on pat science: nursing implications of medicinal leech therapy1993Therapy
571Langer S, Vezsenyi K, deCarle D, Bersdorf VD & Kvist SLeeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) from the far north of Ontaria: Distribution, diversity, and diagnostics2017Biology
572Larsson J, Klasson S & Arnljots BSuccessful nose replantation using leeches for venous draining2016Surgery
573Latrille J & NikonovGLeech extracts for stents2006Destabilase, Patent
574Laturnus M, Weger V & Bachter DBlutegeltherapie bei venös gestauter Lappenplastik2010Surgery, Dermatology, Wound Healing
575Lauber HJBeitrag zur Behandlung des malignen Gesichtsfurunkels1939Dermatology, Furuncles
576Lauche R, Cramer H, Langhorst J & Dobos GJA systematic review and meta-analysis of medical leech therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee2014Orthopaedics, Osteoarthritis, Review Article
577Lauche R, Cramer H, Moebus S, Paul A, Michalsen A, Langhorst J & Dobos GJResults of a 2-week inpatient stay at the department for internal and integrative medicine: An observational study2012Therapy
578Laufer AS, Siddall ME & Graf JCharacterization of the digestive tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis, a European medicinal leech2008Hirudo orientalis, Biology, Infections
579Lazarou EE, Catalano G, Catalano MC et al.The psychological effects of leech therapy after penile auto-amputation2006Surgery, Urology
580Lee C, Mehran RJ, Lessard ML & Kerrigan CLLeeches: controlled trial in venous compromised rat epigastric flaps1992Surgery, Wound Healing, Pharmacology
581Lee NJ & Peckitt NSTreatment of sublingual hematoma with medicinal leeches: report of a case1996Haematoma
582Lehmberg JMDie Mediatorfunktion von Bradykinin und Platelet Activating Factor bei der globalen zerebralen Ischämie2002Saliva, PAF-Inhibitor
583Lemke SDie Speicheldrüsenzellen des medizinischen Blutegels, Hirudo verbana - Struktur, Inhaltsstoffe und mögliche Funktionen2014Biology. Leech Saliva, Hirudo verbana
584Lemke S, Müller C & Hildebrandt JPBe ready at any time: Postprandal synthesis of salivary proteins in salivary gland cells of the haematophagous leech Hirudo verbana2016Biology, Saliva, Hirudo verbana
585Lemke S, Müller C, Lipke E, Uhl G & Hildebrandt JPMay salivary gland secretory proteins from hematophagous leeches (Hirudo verbana) reach pharmacologically relevant concentrations in the vertebrate host?2013Saliva, Proteins, Hirudo verbana
586Lent CNew medical and scientific uses of the leech1986Review Article, Therapy, Pharmacovigilance
587Lent CM & Dickinson MHThe neurobiology of feeding in leeches1988Review Article, Hirudo medicinalis, Biology
588Lent CM, & Dickinson MHOn the termination of ingestive behavior by the medicinal leech1987Hirudo medicinalis, Biology, Feeding, Artificial Blood
589Lent CM, Fliegner KH, Freedman E & Dickinson MHIngestive behaviour and physiology of the medicinal leech1988Biology
590Lequesne MKlinische und röntgenologische Verlaufsbeobachtungen bei Hüft- und Kniegelenksarthrosen – Methoden und Ergebnisse1994Osteoarthritis, Methodolgy
591Lequesne M, Mery C, Samson M & Gerard PIncidence of severity of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee –value in comparison with other assessments tests1987Osteoarthritis, Methodolgy
592Leuze AMTechnik der Blutegelbehandlung1936Therapy
593Leuze AMDie Blutegelbehandlung in der Heilstätte1937Therapy
594Levine SM, Frangos SG, Hanna B et al.Aeromonas septicemia after medicinal leech use following replantation of severed digits2010Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas hydrophila, Antibiosis
595Lim CLSuccessful transfer of “free” microvascular superficial temporal artery flap with no obvious venous drainage and use of leeches for reducing venous congestion: case report1986Surgery
596Lindemann BADas Verhalten der Kapillaren in der Umgebung des Blutegelbisses1939Saliva, Histamin
597Lindner RLebende Apotheke2002Review Article, Therapy
598Lineaweaver WCAeromonas hydrophila infections following use of medicinal leeches: A review of published cases1991Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Review Article
599Lineaweaver WC, Furnas H, Follansbee S, Buncke GH, Whitney TM & Canales FPostprandial Aeromonas hydrophila cultures and antibiotic levels of enteric aspirates from medicinal leeches applied to patients receiving antibiotics1992Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
600Lineaweaver WC, Hill MK, Buncke GM, Follansbee S, Buncke HJ, Wong RK, Manders EK, Grottig JC, Anthony J & Mattes SJAeromonas hydrophila infections following use of medicinal leeches in replantation and flap surgery1992Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
601Lineaweaver WC, O´Hara M, Stridde M et al.Clinical leech use in a microsurgical unit: The San Francisco experience1991Surgery
602Linker A, Hoffmann P & Meyer KThe Hyaluronidase of the leech: an endoglucuronidase1957Saliva, Hyaluronidasis
603Litscher MDie Blutegeltherapie. Eine wiederentdeckte Therapie aus der traditionellen Medizin2001History
604Litwinowicz A & Blaszkowska JPreventing infective complications following leech therapy: Elimination of symbiotic Aeromonas spp. From the intestine of Hirudo verbana, using antibiotic feeding2014Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas, Infections
605Litwinowicz A & Blaszkowska JHirudo verbana is a source of fungal isolates potentially pathogenic to humans2013Hirudo verbana, Pharmacovigilance, Mycosis
606Liu C & Barkley TMedicinal leech therapy: New life for an ancient treatment2015Review Article
607Lodders N, Roth M, Schilling L & Kämpfer PMicrobial diversity on the skin of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis: which bacteria can be found and how can the risk of infection be prevented?2010Pharmacovigilance, Infections
608Loewy AG, Santer UV, Wieczorek M et al.:Purification and characterization of novel zinc-protease from cultures of Aeromonas hydrophila1993Aeromonas hydrophila
609Lok U, Bozkurt S, Okur M, Gulack U & Hatipoglu SA rare case of adverse effects caused by leech bite2013Pharmacovigilance, Skin reactions
610Lone AH, Ahmad T, Anwar M & Naiyar AHClinical evaluation of leech therapy in the management of osteoarthritis: A pilot study2013Osteoarthritis
611Lone AH, Ahmad T, Anwar M, Habib S, Sofi G & Imam HLeech therapy – a holistic approach to treatment in Unani (Greek-Arab) medicine2011History, Review Article, Unani therapy
612Lotz RGA, Fuchs MEA & Moyat PEABasic studies on Hirudo medicinalis for a space experiment1970Biology
613Lovibond MEHirudo medicinalis – a pharmacist ‘s view1987Review Article, Therapy
614Lozano DD, Stephenson LL & Zamboni WAEffect of hyperbaric oxygend and medical leeching on survival of axial skin flaps subjected to total venous occlusion1999Surgery, Pharmacology, Doppler Fluorimetry
615Lu YX, Cheng BX, Guo QS, Liu F, Shi HZ & Guo LStudies on effect of water temeperature, stocking density and feeding cycle on growth and feeding in Hirudo nipponica2017Biology
616Lucht F, Aubert G, Seguin P et al.Postoperative skin-flap decongestion , leeches, and Aeromonas hydrophila1988Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
617Lüdtke RWirksamkeit der Blutegeltherapie bestätigt – mit Einschränkungen2006Review Article
618Macagno ER, Gaasterland T, Edsall L et al.Construction of a medicinal leech transcriptome database and its application to the identification of leech homologs of neural and innate immune genes2010Biology, Nervous System, Transcriptom Database
619Macias D, Kwon DI, Walker PC & Peterson NRMicrovascular replantation of a composite facial avulsion in a 24-month-old child after dog bite2017Surgery, Facial Avulsion
620Mackay DR, Manders EK, Saggers CC, Banducci CR, Prinsloo J & Klugmann KAeromonas species isolated from medicinal leeches1999Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
621Mackay-Dick JLeech out of reach1970Therapy
622MacQuillan A, Jones ME & Gault DTaking a leech to blood: But can we make him drink?2002Surgery
623Mader EZur Technik der Blutegelbehandlung1939Therapy
624Maetz B, Abbou R, Andreoletti JB & Bruant-Rodler CInfections following rhe application of leeches: Two case reports and review of the literature2012Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas veronii biovar, Review Article
625Mahaffey PThe use of leeches in reconstructive surgery1987Surgery, Review Article
626Mahanta VD, Foram J, Dudhamal TS & Gupta SKJalaukavacharana (leech application) and adjuvant therapy in the management of infected wound2017Wound Healing
627Mahorner HR & Ochsner AThe use of leeches in the treatment of phlebitis and the prevention of pulmonary embolism1933Phlebitis, Embolism, Anticoagulation
628Makin CA & Edwards LApplication of leeches to reduce swelling after reconstructive surgery1987Surgery, Haematoma, Swelling
629Malavazi-Piza KC, Araujo MS, Godinho RO & Tanaka ASEffect of invertebrate serine protease inhibitors on carrageenan-induced pleural and Bradykinin release2004Saliva, LDTI, Anti-Inflammation
630Maltz & Graf JThe type II secretion system is essential for erythrocyte lysis and gut colonizationb by the leech digestive tract symbiont Aeromonas veronii2011Biology, Anticoagulation, Haemolysis, Aeromonas veronii
631Maltz M, Bomar L, Lapierre P, Morrison HG, McClure EH, Sogin ML & Graf JMetagenomic analysis of the medicinal leech gut microbiota2014Biology, Germs, Genom Analysis
632Mamelak AJ, Jackson A, Nizamani R, Arnon O, Liegeois NJ, Redett RJ & Byrne PJLeech therapy in cutaneous surgery and disease2010Surgery, Saliva, Anticoagulation, Fluorimetry, D-Dimers, History,
633Manadhar S, Chetti S, Shah S, Sah BP, Shilpakar S, Mishra S, Kandel D & Gupta PPLiving foreign body: Leech inside the nasal cavity causing epitaxis2015Wildlife leech
634Mandegar HMLocalized treatment of chest pain is still common in rural areas2013Pharmacovigilance, Cardiovascular System
635Mangulabnan VD & Dasgupta RKA rare case of pneumonia caused by leeches2016, Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Pneumonia
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637Mansoor SN, Anwar Z & Sheen SNReach the leech: An unusual cause of hematuria2016Leeches, Epistaxis, Haematuria, Urethra
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642Marki WE, Wallis RBThe anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties of hirudins1990Anticoagulation, Hirudin
643Markwardt FDie Isolierung und chemische Charakterisierung des Hirudins1957Saliva, Hirudin
644Markwardt FHirudin als Antikoagulans: ein Comeback1989Hirudin
645Markwardt FThe development of hirudin as an antithrombotic drug1994Saliva, Hirudin
646Markwardt FPharmacology of Hirudin: One hundred years after the first report of the anticoagulant agent in medicinal leeches1985Hirudin, Pharmacology
647Markwardt FThe comeback of hirudin as antithrombotic agent1991Saliva, Hirudin
648Markwardt FPast, presence and future of Hirudin1991Saliva, Hirudin, Hirudin recombinant
649Markwardt FCoagulation inhibitors from blood sucking animals1994Saliva, Hirudin
650Markwardt FHirudin: The promising antithrombotic1992Saliva, Hirudin
651Markwardt F & Hunsaker RControlling the medicinal leech1989Saliva, Hirudin
652Markwardt F Hirudo1998Saliva, Hirudin
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660Marshall CG & Lent CMExcitability and secretory activity in the salivary gland cells of jaed leeches (Hirudinea: Gnathobdellida)1988Saliva, Serotonin
661Martin DL & Hunsaker RControlling the medicinal leech1989Surgery
662Martin ETZur Geschichte des Hirudins – Die Entwicklung des blutgerinnungshemmenden Wirkstoffes des medizinischen Blutegels, Hirudo medicinalis, vom einfachen Blutegelextrakt 1884 bis zum gentechnisch produzierten Medikament1998History, Hirudin
663Martin GM, Linnell JD, Yang SS, Lin J, Camarata PJ & Andrews BTUltrasound localization of a tunneled leech beneath a microvascular scalp reconstruction2013Surgery, Pharmacovigilance
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665Massart D, Sohawon S & Noordally OMedicinal leeches2009Review Article, Biology, Therapy, History
666McClintock JWhen modern medicine needs some help, surgeons call in mother nature‘s little helper-the leech2001Review Article
667McPhalen CA, Schnebli HP & James MNCrystal and molecular structure of the inhibitor eglin from leeches in complex with subtilisin Carlsberg1985Saliva, Eglin
668Medina A & Tredget EStrategies to increase flap survival in nasal reconstruction in patients with deep panfacial burns2013Surgery, Dermatology, Burns
669Medina ND, Mehan V & Schmidt STHeparin-induced thrombocytopenia leading to flap failure: Hirudo medicinalis and implications2010Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, HIT, Heparin
670Menage MJ & Wright GUse of leeches in case of severe perorbital haematoma1991Ophthalmology, Haematoma
671Mendenhall SD, Sawyer JD & Adkinson JMArtery-only ear replantation in a child: A case report with daily photographic documentation2016Surgery, Ear Replantation
672Mercer NSG, Beere DM, Bornemisza AJ & Thomas PMedicinal leeches as sources of wound infection1987Pharmacovigilance, Infections
673Merilä J & Sterner MMedicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) attacking and killing adult amphibians2002Biology, Leeches
674Meyer OEin neues Behandlungsprinzip der idiopathischen Trigeminusneuralgie1938Neurology, Trigeminus
675Meyer ONew principle in treatment of poliomyelitis: application of leeches over inflamed jugular vein1944Anti-Inflammation, Phlebitis
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677Michael JWP, Schlüter-Brust KU & Eysel PThe epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoarthrosis of the knee2010Osteoarthritis, Review Article
678Michalsen ACorrespondence Letter to the Editor: Current State of Research2010Orthopaedics, Osteoarthritis
679Michalsen ABlutegel2005Review Article, Osteoarthritis
680Michalsen AWissenschaftliche Grundlagen der Blutegeltherapie..2006Review Article
681Michalsen ABlutegeltherapie bei chronischen Rückenschmerzen2009Orthopaedics
682Michalsen ABlutegel in der Therapie2014Review Article, Therapy
683Michalsen ASummaries for patients. Leeches to treat knee osteoarthritis2003Review Article, Osteoarthritis
684Michalsen AUnerwünschte Wirkungen der Blutegeltherapie..2006Review Article, Pharmacovigilance
685Michalsen A & Hohmann CDBlutegeltherapie bei chronischen unteren Rückenschmerzen (LWS Syndrom)2017Low Back Pain
686Michalsen A & Roth MBlutegeltherapie2006Handbook
687Michalsen A, Deuse U, Esch T,Dobos G & Moebus SEffect of leeches therapy (Hirudo medicinalis) in painful osteoarthritis of the knee: a pilot study2001Osteoarthritis
688Michalsen A, Klotz S, Lüdtke R, Moebus S, Spahn G & Dobos GJEffectiveness of leech therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial2003Osteoarthritis
689Michalsen A, Lüdtke R, Cesur Ö, Afra D, Musial F, Bäcker M, Fink M & Dobos GJEffectiveness of leech therapy in women with symptomatic rhizarthrosis of the first carpometacarpal joint: A randomized controlled trial.2008Osteoarthritis
690Michalsen A, Moebus S, Spahn G, Esch T, Langhorst J & Dobos GJLeech therapy for symptomatic treatment of knee osteoarthritis: results and implications of a pilot study2002Osteoarthritis
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694Milde H, Clauss W & Weber WMModulation of Na+ transport across leech skin by pesticides and heavy metals1996Biology
695Milz FBlutegeltherapie1993Therapy
696Mineo M, Jolley T & Rodriguez GLeech therapy in penile replantation: a case of recurrent penile self-amputation2004Surgery, Urology
697Minkin BILeeches in modern medicine1998Surgery
698Mironov B & Desponov BTreatment of myocardial infarct by leeches1996Cardio-Vascular System
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700Mishra DPJalauka-Awacharan (application of leech) for the management of pain in Dusta Vrana (Non-healing ulcer)2015Dermatology, Ulcer
701Mittl PRE, Di Marco S, Fendrich G, et al.A new structural class of serine protease inhibitors revealed by the structure of the hirustasin-kallikrein complex1997Saliva, Hirustasin
702Miyao IExperimental inquiry into the possibility of transmission of yaws by leeches1932Leech
703Modig MThe strange loire of leeches1986History
704Moebius PGWann und wie der Blutegelbehandlung1935Therapy
705Mommsen J, Rodriguez-Fernandez J & Mateos-Micas MAvulsion of the auricle in an anticoagulated patient: Is leeching contraindicated? A review and a case2011Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Warfarin
706Moosavian HR, Mirglazanfari SM & Moghaddam KGEffect of ischemia preconditioning and leech therapy on cutaneous pedicle flaps subjected to prolonged ischemia in a mouse model2014Surgery, Pharmacology
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708Morozova SV & Aksenova OVDie Hirudotherapie bei der Behandlung peripherer cochleovestibulärer Erkrankungen vaskulärer Genese2009Tinnitus, Vertigo
709Mortenson BW, Dawson KH & Murakami CMedicinal leeches used to salvage a traumatic nasal flap1998Surgery
710Mory RN, Mindell D & Bloom DAThe leech and the physician: Biology, etymology, and medical practice with Hirudo medicinalis2000Review Article, History, Biology, Therapy
711Moser C & Moser KSo hilft Ihnen die Blutegeltherapie2002Review Article
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715Mousavi SA, Ghazemi M, Mousavi SJ, Darka SSM & Baghari VComparison of leeching and heparin therapy in management of acute venous congestion of limbs in rats2016Pharmacology, Venous Congestion, Inflammation, Heparin
716Mozafari N, Ghazisaidi MR, Hosseini SN & Abdolzadeh MComparisons of medicinal leech therapy with venous catherzation in the treatment of venous congestion of the sural flap2011Surgery
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719Mule C, Chandankhede A & Mule KCHirudotherapy (Jaluakavacharana) in Netraroga according to Sushrutha: A review2016Ayurveda; Review Article
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722Müller IWHandbuch der Blutegeltherapie2000Handbook
723Müller IWBlutegeltherapie zwischen Empirie und Wissenschaft2002Review Article, Therapy, History
724Müller IWBlutegeltherapie im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert1985History
725Müller MPilotstudie zur Messung der mechanischen Berührungs-, Druckschmerz- und Vibrationsempfindungsschwelle bei Therapie der Gonarthrose mit Hirudo medicinalis2016Knee Osteoarthritis, Sensory Threshold
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727Mumcuoglu KYRecommendations for the use of leeches in reconstructive plastic surgery2014Surgery, Treatment Procedure, Pharmacovigilance, Antibiotics
728Mumcuoglu KY, Huberman L, Cohen R Temper V, Adler A, Galun R & Block CElimination of symbiotic Aeromonas spp. from the intestinal tract of medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, using ciprofloxazin feeding2010Hirudo medicinalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Infections
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730Munro F, Hechtel FOP & Sawyer RTSustained bleeding after a leech bite in the apparent absence of hirudin1989Pharmacovigilance, Bleeding, Saliva, Hirudin
731Munro R, Jones CP & Sawyer RTCalin – a platelet adhesion inhibitor from the saliva of the medicinal leech1991Saliva, Calin
732Munshi Y, Ara I, Rafique H & Ahmad ZLeeching in the history – a review2008History
733Murken HDer Blutegel (Hirudo medicinalis) als Helfer des kranken Menschen2002Therapy
734Murzakhmetova S, Janzakova D & Mektepbayeva DAnticancer effects of leech extract on breast cancer cells2016Nazarbayev University
735Mutimer KL, Banis JC & Upton JMicrosurgical reattachment of totally amputated ears1987Surgery, Pharmacovigilance
736Nager M & Wuillemin WLeeching as a substitute for phlebotomy2011Venesection
737Nair V, Das KP & Saha NHirudotherapy: Will the glorious past return?2017Review Article
738Najar FA, Khan JA, Fatima M, Ahmad K & Fasial MEfficacy of Taleeq (Leech therapy) in the management of Bawaseer (Haemorrhoid): A case series2016Haemorrhoids
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740Narendrathan MLeeches and hepatitis B1992Pharmacovigilance, Infections
741Nath RK, Kraemer BA & Azizzadeh AComplete ear replantation without venous anastomosis1998Surgery, Alternative to leeches
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743Nayak S & Kumar PHEffect of jalaukavacharana along with samshamanan chirkitsa in ek-kushta with special reference to psoriasis: A case study2016Psoriasis, Ayurveda
744Nazar PS & Doroshenko BHThe leech therapy of infectious myocarditis1998Cardio-Vascular System
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749Nelson MC, Bomar L, Maltz M & Graf JMucinivorans hirudinis gen. Nov., sp. Nov., an anaerobic mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana2015Biology, Infections
750Nesemann HAnnelida; Brachiobdellina; Acanthobdellea, Hirudinea1999Taxonomy, Hirudo medicinalis
751Nesemann HEgel und Krebsegel Österreichs1997Biology
752Nett CS, Arnold P & Claus TMLeeching as initial treatment in a cat with polycythaemia vera2001Veterinary Medicine, Polycythaemia vera
753Ng AHirudotherapy: A guide to using leeches to drain blood from tissue2017Review, Procedure, Surgery
754Nguyen MQ, Crosby MA, Skoracki RJ & Hanasono MMOutcomes of flap salvage with medicinal leech therapy2012Surgery
755Nguyen S, Zamora S & Rockwell WBClinical use of leeches in reconstructive surgery1997Surgery, Review Article
756Nickl HÜber die Wirkungen der Blutegeltherapie auf die Gerinnung im peripheren Kreislauf bei lokaler Applikation1953Anticoagulation, Cardiovascular System
757Nikitina A, Babenko V, Akopian T, Shirokov D, Manuvera V, Kurdyumov A, Kostsyukova E & Vassili LDraft mitochondrial genomes of Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana (Annelida Hirudinea)2016Biology, Genom Analysis
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759Nikonov GI & Titova EADestabilase complexes – natural liposome produced by medicinal leeches Hirudo medicinalis1999Saliva, Destabilase
760Nikonov GI, Seleznev KG, Gutsola AA et al.:The anti-stress properties of TONUS and RELAX derived from medicinal leech2007Saliva,Piyavit, Psychiatry, Cosmetics, Leech Ointment
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764Nikonov GI, Titova EA & Seleznev KGA stable prostacylin-like substance produced by the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis1999Saliva, Proteins, Prostaglandins
765Nitabach MN & Macagno ERCell- and tissue-specific expression of putative protein kinase mRNAs in the embryonic leech Hirudo medicinalis1995Biology, Proteins
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768Nonomura H, Kato N, Ohno Y, Itokazu M, Matsunaga T & Watanabe KIndigenous bacterial flora of medicinal leeches and their susceptibilities to 15 antimicrobial agents1996Pharmacovigilance, Infections
769Nouri M, Karimi-Yarandi K, Etezadi F & Amirjamshidi ALeech therapy for pain relief: Rationale behind a notion2012Orthopaedics, Lumbago, Sciatica, Pain Therapy
770Novakovic D, Patel RS, Goldstein DP & Gullane PJSalvage of failed free flaps used in head and neck reconstruction2009Surgery, Review Article
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772Nutt EM, Jain D, Lenny AB et al.Purification and characterization of recombinant antistasin: a leech derived inhibitor of coagulation factor X a1991Saliva, Faktor X a-Inhibitor, Antistasin
773Nyholm SV & Graf JKnowing your friends: Invertebrate innate immunity fosters beneficial bacterial symbiosis2012Bacteria, Immune System
774O‘Hara MLeeching: a modern use for an ancient remedy1988Therapy
775Obe GDie Blutegelbehandlung der akuten unspezifischen Epididymitis1953Urology, Epididymitis
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777Ochsner A & Mahorner HRBactericidal effect of hirudin and heparin. Intravenous injection of hirudin and of heparin and leeching in experimental bacteria1935Pharmacovigilance, Hirudin, Bacteria
778Oden HGZur Blutegeltherapie bei Thrombophlebitis1933Phlebitis, Thrombosis, Anticoagulation, Thrombophlebitis
779Oezbek M & Sari HMBati Karadeniz Bölgesi‚ndeki Bazi Göllerin Hirudinea (Annelida) Faubasi2007Hirudo medicinalis, Demography
780Oh TS, Hallock G & Hong JPFreestyle propeller flaps to reconstructed defects of the posterior trunk: A simple approach to a difficult problem2012Surgery
781Okka BHirudotherapy from past to present2013History
782Oliva A, Lineaweaver WC, Buncke HJ et al.Salvage of wounds following failed tissue transplantation1993Surgery
783Oostheer RLeeching1970Biology, Leeches
784Oregaard JS, Lang CL & Venzo APartial salvage of avulsed tissue after dog bite2016Surgery
785Orevi M, Eldor A, Giguzin I & Rigbi MJaw anatomy of the blood-sucking leeches, Hirudinea Linnatis nilotica and Hirudo medicinalis, and its relationship to their feeding habits2000Biology, Leeches
786Orevi M, Rigbi M, Hy-am E et al.A potent inhibitor of platelet activating factor from the saliva of the leech Hirudo medicinalis1992Saliva, PAF-Inhibitor
787Orgill DPMedicinal leech therapy2007Surgery
788Orkiz Z, Mraovic B, Kvolitz S, Istvanic T, Divkovic D & Kristek JDoes the type of anaestesia administered affect the efficacy of medicinal leech therapy after finger replantation: Clinical observations in a 6-year-old boy2012Surgery
789Ormen O, Granum PE, Lassen J & Figueras MJLack of agreement between biochemical and genetic identification of Aeromonas spp.2005Aeromonas
790Orsini J & Sakoulas GSurgical site infection complicating leech therapy2007Surgery, Infections, Aeromonas
791Ott BM, Beka L, Graf J & Rio RVMDraft genome sequence of Pedobacter sp. Strain Hv1, an isolate from medicinal leech mucosal castings2015Biology, Mucus, Infections, Bacteria, Genome
792Ott BM, Dacks AM, Fyan KJ & Rio RVMA tale of transmission: Aeromonas veronii activity within leech-exuded mucus2016Biology, Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas
793Ott BM, Rickards A, Gehrke L & Rio RVMCharacterization of shed medicinal leech mucus reveals a diverse microbiota2015Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Mucus
794Otto A, Schoeller T, Wechselberger G & Ohler KSuccessful ear replantation without venous anamastosis by using leeches1999Surgery
795Ouderkirk JP, Bekhor D, Turett GS & Murali RAeromonas meningitis complicating medicinal leech therapy2004Surgery, Infections, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pharmacovigilance
796Özyurt S, Koca G, Demirel K, Baskin A & Korkmaz MFindings of bone scintigraphy after leech therapy2014Scintigraphy, Blood Flow Measurement
797Panda AK & Debnath SKEffectiveness of leech therapy in Gambhira Vata-Rakta (Acute gout): A pilot study2012Orthopaedics, Gout
798Pannucci CJ, Nelson JA, Chung CU, Fischer JP, Kanchawala SK, Kovach SJ, Serletti JM & Wu LCMedicinal leeches for surgically uncorrectable venous congestion after free flap breast reconstruction2014Surgery
799Pantuck AJLetter to the editor1997Surgery, Urology, Haematoma
800Pantuck AJ, Lobis MR & Rocco CPenile replantation using the leech Hirudo medicinalis1996Surgery, Urology
801Papavramidou N & Christopoulou-Aletra HMedicinal use of leeches in the texts of ancient Greek, Roman and early Byzantine writers2009History
802Patel KM, Svestka M, Sinkin J & Ruff PCiprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection following leech therapy: A case report and review of the literature2013Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas hydrophila, Resistance to Antibiotics
803Pathak S, Ashwini PA, Girbide SG & Kadam KNManagement of Khalita WSR to androgenetic alopecia through jalaukavacharana by ayurveda: A case study2015Dermatology, Alopecia
804Pavlova IB, Danyan G, Chen LC & Yudina TGSensitivity of mycobacterium smegmatis to antibiotic effect of saliva cells secretion of the medical leech Hirudo medicinalis2016Saliva, Antibiosis
805Pawaskar M, Katariya P, Joglekar N & Bawane VCEffect of Jalaukavacharana in inflammatory joint disorders - A case study2018Osteoarthritis, Inflammation
806Payton BWMedicinal leeching: The golden age1984History
807Pendleton A, Arden N, Dougados M et al.EULAR recommendations for the management of knee osteoarthritis : report of a task force of the Standing Committe for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCSIT)2000Osteoarthrosis, Methodology
808Pereira JA, Greig JR, Liddy H et al.:Leech-borne Serratia marcescens infection following complex hand injury1998Surgery, Infections, Serratia marcescens
809Petersen AM, Chin W, Feilich KL, Jung G, Quist JL, Wang J & Ellerby DJLeeches run cold, then hot2011Biology
810Petersen TE, Roberts HR, Sotrup-Jensen L & Magnusson SPrimary structure of hirudin, a thrombin-specific inhibitor1958Saliva, Hirudin, Anticoagulation
811Petrauskiene LWater and sediment toxicity assessed by the use of behavioural response of medicinal leeches2003Biology, Leeches
812Petrauskiene L, Utevska O & Utevsky SCan different species of medicinal leech (Hirudo spp.) interbreed?2009Biology, Leeches
813Petrauskiene L, Utevska O & Utevsky SReproductive biology and ecological strategies of three species of medicinal leeches (genus Hirudo)2011Biology, Leeches
814Petri CBlutegel bei Peritendinitis und verwandten Beschwerden1939Tendinitis, Epicondylitis
815Pfeiffer I, Brenig B & Kutschera UThe occurrence of an Australian leech species (genus Helobdella) in German freshwater habitats as revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences2004Leeches, Helobdella, Demography
816Philip J, Armitage DW, Ohilipps KR & Parr NJLeech therapy for penoscrotal oedema in patients with hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma2003Urology, Oedema
817Phillips AJ & Siddall MEPoly-paraphyly of Hirudineae: many lineages of medical leeches2009Hirudo medicinalis, Taxonomy
818Phillips AJ, Arauco-Brown R, Oceguera-Figueroa A et al.Tyrannobdella rex N. Gen. N. Sp. and the evolutionary origins of mucosal leech infestations2010Biology, Leeches, Tyrannobdella rex
819Piening JDie Anwendung des Blutegel in der Geriatrie1960Geriatrics, Cardiovascular System
820Pietrzak A, Kanitakis J, Tomasiewicz K, Wawrzycki B, Kozlowska-Loj J, Dybiec E & Chodorowska GCutaneous complications of improper leech application2012Pharmacovigilance, Allergy, Skin Reactions
821Pilcher HMedicinal leeches: Stuck on you2004Biology, Leeches
822Pirschel F & Kretzberg JEncoding of tactile stimulus parameters by mechano-sensory P cells of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis2011Biology, Nervous System
823Pohlig G, Fendrich G, Knecht R et al.Purification, characterization and biological evaluation of recombinant leech-derived Tryptase inhbitor (rLDTI) expressed at high level in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae1996Saliva, LDTI
824Popa OA, Surugiu V, Vadana MI & Popa LGenetic variability of the Mediterrenean medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana Carena 1820) in Romania2016Biology, Genom Analysis
825Porshinsky BS, Saha S, Grossman MD, Beery II P & Stawicki SClinical uses of the medicinal llech: A practical review2011Surgery, Haematoma, Review Article
826Pospelova ML & Barnaulov ODEffects of hirudotherapy on intravascular thrombosis activation in different cerebrovascular pathologies2010Thrombosis, Cerebrovascular Diseases
827Pospelova ML & Barnaulov ODHirudotherapy in the treatment of bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion: Case report2010Thrombosis, Cerebrovascular Diseases
828Potempa J, Dubin A, Seemüller U et al.Inhibition of horse leucocyte proteinases by eglin, a proteinase inhibitor from leeches1985Saliva, Eglin
829Powell J & Sawyer RTHeparin inhibits mammalian, but not leech, hyaluronidase1989Saliva, Hyaluronidase, Anticoagulation
830Prakash J, Singh M, Kumar M, Kumar S & Sambyal SEffect of leech therapy in chronic ulcer - A case study2015Wound Healing, Dermatology, Leg Ulcer
831Prasad SB & Sinha MRVaginal bleeding due to a leech1983Leeches
832Prentis TCaring for a patient having leech therapy1998Therapy
833Prentis TNursing care in leech therapy1998Therapy
834Przybilla B & Rueff FTryptase-Bestimmung bei Typ-I-Allergie.2004Dermatology, Allergy, Methodology
835Pugliese L, Gattix G, Bolognesi M et al.Preliminary crystallographic data on the complex of bovine alpha-chymotrypsin with the recombinant protease inhibitor eglin c from Hirudo medicinalis1989Saliva, Eglin
836Pukovnik PBlutegel-Therapie-Den Körper entgiften1998Handbook
837Pullen RLUsing leeches to treat wounds2010Dermatology, Wound Healing
838Pulze L, Baranzini N, Giradello R, Grimaldi A, Ibba-Manneschi C, Ottaviani E, Reguzzoni M, Tettamanti G & de Eguilan MA new cellular type in intervertebrates: First evidence of telocytes in leech Hirudo medicinalis2017Biology
839Rados CBeyond blood letting: FDA gives leeches a medical makeover2004Market Approval
840Rai PK, Singh AK, Singh OP et al.Efficacy of leech therapy in the management of osteoarthritis (Sandhivata)2011Osteoarthritis
841Rajeev K, Chandramohan A & Sarita VBuerger`s disease - Where is the relief? A critical review2016Dermatology, Wound Healing, BUERGER`s Disease, Thromboangiitis
842Rajic AJ & Deleyiannis FWBDetermining the duration of leech therapy in the treatment of acute venous congestion in prefabricated free flaps2016Surgery, Treatment Procedure
843Ramesh K, Omprakash S, Garg KG, Iyoti H & Ashuani KJaulakavacharana (Hirudotherapy): A unique para surgical measure2013Review Article
844Rampure N, Channabasavanna BM & MallikarjuJalaukavacharana in diabetic foot ulcer - A case study2017Wound Healing, Diabetic Foot, Ulcer
845Ramzan M , Droog W & Sleeswijk Visser SLeech got your tongue? Haematoma of the tongue teated with medicinal leeches: a case report2010Haematoma, Dentistry, Implant
846Rao P, Baille FB & Bailey BNLeechmania in microsurgery1985Surgery
847Rapaport DP, Breitbart AS, Karp NS & Siebert JWSuccessful microvascular replantation of a completely amputated ear1993Surgery
848Rasch KBlutegeltherapie bei Hufrehe der Pferde2010Veterinary Medicine, Horse
849Rasi A, Faghihi A, Jalali MA, Zamanian A & Ghaffarpour GLeech therapy for epidermoid cysts and review of the literature2014Pharmacovigilance, Dermatology, Cysts
850Rastogi S & Chaudhari PPigment reduction in nevus of Ota following leech therapy2014Dermatology, Nevus
851Reddy KRClinical study of leech application in various medico-surgical conditions2014Surgery, Varicosis, Haematoma, Ulcer
852Reese K, Gümbel D, Seifert J, Daeschlein G, Napp M & Ekkernkamp AInfektionen im Zusammenhang mit der Anwendung von Hirudo medicinalis-Zwei Fallberichte und Literaturübersicht2015Surgery, Venous Congestion, Osteoarthritis, Erysipelas, Infections, Pharmacovigilance
853Regan PJ, Roberts JO, Sabathy SR & Roberts AHUse of the medicinal leech to salvage specialized skin jeopardized by venous impairment1991Blood Circulation, Phlebitis
854Renesto P, Ferrer-Lopezx P & Chignard MInterference of recombinant eglin c, a protease inhibitor extracted from leeches, with neutrophil-mediated platelet activation1990Saliva, Eglin
855Rester U, Bode W, Moser M et al.Structure of the complex of the antistasin-type inhibitor bdellostasin with trypsin and modeling of the bdellostasin-microplasmin system1999Saliva, Bdellins
856Retzlaff K & Meyer EDie Blutegelbehandlung von Thrombosen und Thrombophlebitiden1935Thrombosis, Phlebitis, Thrombophlebitis
857Reverter D, Vendrell J, Canals F et al.A carboxypeptidase inhibitor from the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. Isolation, sequence analysis, cDNA cloning, recombinant expression, and characterization1998Saliva, Eglin
858Reynolds A & Oboyle CNurses` experiences of leech therapy in plastic and reconstructive surgery2016Surgery, Nurses
859Rheinbaben F, Riebe O, Koehnlein J & Werner SViral infection risks for patients using the finished product Hirudo verbana (medicinal leech)2014Hirudo medicinalis, Pharmacovigilance, Pathogenous Viruses, Infections
860Ricci-Silva MEProtein mapping oft he salivary complex from a hematophageous leech2005Biology
861Richerson JT, Davis JA & Meystrik RAeromonas, acclimation, and penicillin as complications when leeches are applied to skin flaps in rabbits1990Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pharmacology, Infections
862Riede F, Koenen W, Goerdt S , Ehmke H & Faulhaber JDer Einsatz medizinischer Blutegel zur Therapie der venösen Stase und von Hämatomen bei Lappenplastiken2010Surgery, Dermatology, Haematoma, Venous Congestion
863Rigbi M, Levy H, Eldor A et al.The saliva of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. II Inhibition of platelet aggregation and of leucocyte activity and examination of reputed anaesthetic effects1987Saliva, PAF-Inhibitor, Anaesthesia, Anticoagulation, Adrenalin
864Rigbi M, Levy H, Iraqui F et al.The saliva of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. I Biochemical characterization of the high molecular weight fraction1987Saliva
865Rigbi M, Orevi M & Eldor APlatelet aggregation and coagulation inhibitors in leech saliva and their roles in leech therapy1996Saliva, PAF-Inhibitor, Faktor X a-Inhibitor, Adrenalin
866Rink H, Liersch M, Sieber P & Meyer FA large fragment approach to DNA synthesis: total synthesis of a gene for the protease inhibitor eglin c from the leech Hirudo medicinalis and its expression in E. coli1984Saliva, Eglin
867Rivera ML & Gross JEScalp replantation after traumatic injury1995Surgery
868Ross MSThe leech: Of dermatological interest? (Letter)1983Dermatology
869Roters FJ & Zebe EProtease inhibitors in the alimentary tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis: In vivo and in vitro studies1992Biology, Eglin, Bdellin, Proteases, Protease-Inhibition
870Roth MEin Tier heilt Tiere. Der medizinische Blutegel1997Veterinary Medicine
871Roth MZur Biologie der Blutegel.2009Hirudo medicinalis, Taxonomy
872Roth MZur Biochemie der Blutegelsekrete.2009Saliva
873Roth MMangelware Blutegel1999Hirudo medicinalis, Demography
874Roth MBiologie der Blutegel und ihre therapeutische Wirksamkeit2002Biology, Leeches, Therapy
875Roth M, Jauker F & Morkel CEin großer Räuber in weicher Verpackung. Der medizinische Blutegel1997Hirudo medicinalis
876Rothenberger J, Petersen W, Schaller HE & Held MDetermining the appropriate number and duration of leech therapy in congested tisuue spectrophotometry and laser Doppler Flowmetry2016Surgery, Doppler Flowmetry, Microcirculation, Oxygen to See O2C. Wound Healing, Mode of Action
877Rouholamin H & Harris DReach for a leech. Leeches and microsurgery1991Surgery
878Rudeaux NNIK, Relax and Tonus2007Psychiatry, Cosmetics
879Rüdiger HWZur Blutegelbehandlung1936Therapy
880Ruppé E, Cherkaoui A, Wagner N, LaScala GC, Beaulieu Y, Girard M, Frey J, Lazarevic V & Schrenzel JIn vivo selection of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas salmonicida during medical leech therapy2017Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
881Sadeghi A, Navabakhsh B & Vahedi NILeech induced pyoderma gangrenosum in an ulcerative colitis patient: A case report2016Pharmacovigilance
882Saglam N, Saunders R, Lang SA & Shain DHA new species of Hirudo (Annelida: Hirudinea): Historical biogeography of Eurasian medicinal leeches2016Biology
883Sahin AG & Saglan NThe investigation of hyaluronidase activity in muscle of medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis)2016Biology, Saliva, Hyaluronidase
884Saidel WM, Saglan N, Salas de la Cruz D, Saunders R & Shain DHElaborate ultrastructure of Hirudo (Annelida: Hirudinae) cocoon surface2017Biology
885Saifi N, Alam S & Ahmed SLeech therapy: Modern and Unani medical perspective2016History, Review
886Saki N, Rahim F, Nikghlagh S, & Saki GMeta analysis of the leech as a live foreign body: detection, precaution, and treatment2009;Epitaxis
887Salikhov IG, Lapshina SA, Salikhova DI, Mukhina RG, Khabirov RA, Abdrakipov RZ & Latfullina FHEffect of leeches therapy in periarticular symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis2002Osteoarthritis, Rheumatism
888Salzet MAnticoagulants and inhibitors of platelet aggregation derived from leeches2001Review Article, Saliva, Anticoagulation
889Salzet MLeech thrombin inhibitors2002Review Article, Saliva, Anticoagulation
890Samarendra H & Kalu PMedicinal leech therapy in plastic surgery2017Surgery, review
891Sanapala C, Jones J, McConville R & Foo MTreatment of a nasal tip laceration with adjunctive leech therapy: A case report2015Surgery
892Sandkamp M, Köster B & Hiller RTryptase – ein neuer Allergiemarker2005Allergy
893Saqlain M, Ali F, Parveen A & Riaz ABenefits of leech therapy in Unani system of medicine: A review2016Review Article
894Saranya U & Kanesalingam MWound healing activity of leech therapy on Dhusta Virnam: A case study2017Dermatology, Wound Healing
895Sargin S, Atik A, Merik G & Ulusal AELeech treatment for prolonged digital ischemia2015Surgery
896Saroj SJ, Kasle S & Giri SAyurvedic management of TAO (BUERGER`S Disease) - A case study2017Dermatology, Thromboangiitis, BUERGER`S Disease, Wound Healing
897Sartor C, Bornet C, Guinard D & Fournier PETransmission of Aeromonas hydrophila by leeches2013Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas hydrophila, Resistance to Antibiotics
898Sartor C, Limouzin-Perotti F, Legre R, Casanova D, Bongrand MC, Sambruc R & Drancourt MNosocomial infections with Aeromonas hydrophila from leeches2002Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
899Savinov V, Sergeeva N, Chistova C & Chistov AThe role of hirudotherapy in the treatment of urogenital infections2007Urology
900Savinov VASymbiotic bacterium from medicinal leech as the acting agent of hirudoautohaemotherapy2013Cancer, Immune Therapy
901Savinov VAUpper extremity elephantiasis after radical mammectomy leech therapy2013Cancer
902Savoor SRAlopecia areata after leech bite1940Pharmacovigilance, Alopecia areata
903Savrun A, Bozkurt S, Okumus M, Gökcen E & Türkaslan MProlonged bleeding on the neck in leech therapy: Case report2014Pharmacovigilance, Bleeding
904Sawant DP & Panzade SMManagement of periapical abscess with Jalaukavacharana (leech application) - A single case study2017Dermatology, Abscesses
905Sawyer RTHistory of leech trade in Ireland, 1750-1915: Microcosm of a global commodity2013History
906Sawyer RTLeech biology and behaviour. Volume I and II1986Handbook
907Sawyer RTThe trade in medicinal leeches in the Southern Indian ocean in the nineteenth century1999History
908Sawyer RTEditorial (Leeches)1991Review Article
909Sawyer RTThrombolytics and anticoagulants from leeches1991Saliva, Anticoagulation, Thrombolysis
910Schäfer SMolekularbiologische Untersuchungen der Zusammensetzung und Abundanz von Bakterien in der Aquakultur einer Blutegelzucht nach unterschiedlicher Wasserbehandlung2013Pharmacovigilance, Bacteria, Breeding
911Schaible HG, Ebersberger A & von Banchet GSMechanisms of pain in arthritis2002Osteoarthritis
912Schaller AVom Aderlassen, Schröpfen und Blutegel setzen2001Therapy
913Schapira HBlutegelbehandlung bei Adnexitis und Parametritis1937Adnexitis, Parametritis
914Schenker M, Murray A & Kay SPJLeech therapy in the treatment of median nerve compression due to forearm haematoma2006Neurology, Haematoma
915Schikorski D, Cuvillier-Hot V, Leippe M, Boidin-Wichlacz C, Slomianny C, Macagno E, Salzet M & Tasiemski AMicrobial challenge promotes the regenerative process of the injured central nervous system of the medicinal leech by inducing the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in neurons and microglia2008Biology, Neurology, Immune System, Infections
916Schimmel KCAb- und ausleitende Heilmethoden1990Venesection
917Schittenhelm ABlutegeltherapie1936Therapy
918Schlaudraff KU, Bezzola T, Montandon D, Pepper MS & Pittet BMixed arterio-venous insufficieny in random skin flaps in the rat: is the application of medicinal leeches beneficial?2008Pharmacology, Doppler Fluorimetry, Surgery
919Schmidt MNatürliche Therapieverfahren: Blutegel1994Review Article, Therapy
920Schnabl SM, Kunz C, Unglaub F, Polykandriotis E, Horch RE & Dragu AAcute postoperative infection with Aeromonas hydrophila after using medicinal leeches for treatment of venous congestion2010Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas hydrophila, Antibiosis,
921Schnebli HP, Seemüller U, Fritz H et al.Eglin c, a pharmacologically active elastase inhibitor1985Saliva, Eglin
922Schnebli HP, Seemüller U, Fritz H et al.Biochemical properties and possible therapeutic role of the elastase inhibitor eglin c1985Saliva, Eglin
923Scholz NEgel gut, alles gut2005Therapy
924Schöneis-Vogel IBlutegel helfen Mitch und Mine2006Veterinary Medicine
925Schöpfer CDer medizinische Blutegel (Hirudo medicinalis)1841History
926Schreiner KDie Blutegelbehandlung der Epididymitis gonorrhoica und anderer entzündlicher Krankheitszustände1935Urology, Epididymitis
927Schubert MBlutegelbehandlung bei Epididymitiden und Arthritis gonorrhoica1937Urology, Epididymitis, Arthritis gonorrhoica
928Schuhmacher ABlutegelbehandlung des Herpes zoster und des Nervus trigeminus I und II1935Dermatology, Neurology, Shingles, Trigeminus
929Schuhmacher ABlutegel in der Augenheilkunde1936Ophthalmology
930Schulze KDer Blutegel, seine Behandlung und medizinische Anwendung1935Therapy
931Schweer MUntersuchungen zur vergleichenden Stoffwechselphysiologie einheimischer Süßwasseregel (Hirudinea)1959Hirudo medicinalis, Biology
932Schwickert M & Saha JRezidivierender Herpes zoster mit neuralgischem Schmerz2006Dermatology, Shingles
933Seemüller UInhibitoren aus dem Blutegel Hirudo medicinalis mit Hemmwirkung gegen Chrymotripsin, Subtilisin und die menschlichen Granulozytenproteasen Elastase und Kathepsin G1979Saliva, Eglin
934Seemüller U, Eulitz M, Fritz H & Strobl AStructure of the elastase-cathepsin G inhibitor of the leech Hirudo medicinalis1980Saliva, Elastase-Inhibitor
935Seemüller U, Fritz H & Eulitz MEglin: elastase-cathepsin G inhibitor from leeches1981Saliva, Eglin
936Seemüller U, Meier M, Ohlson K et al.Isolation and characterisation of a low molecular weight inhibitor (of chymotrypsin and human granulocytic elastase and cathepsin G) from leeches1977Saliva, Eglin
937Seifert KWDie Blutegeltherapie2005Therapy
938Seigworth GRBlood letting over the centuries1980History
939Seleznev KG & Nikonov GIHirudopharmacotherapy of postradiation damages in pharynx and oral cavity2007Dermatology, Hirudon Gel,
940Seleznev KG & Schetinina YAHirudopharmacotherapy for the treatment of recurrent external otitis2007ENT, Otitis, Hirudon Gel
941Seleznev KG, Nikonov GI & Titova YANatural liposome from Hirudo medicinalis – The active component of the “MAGIA” cosmetic cream2007Dermatology, Cosmetics
942Seleznev KG, Semikov NG, Nikonov GI & Dubrovina IVEfficacy of “HIRUDO” gel for prevention and treatment of dermatitis occurring after radiation in patients suffering from carcinoma of the vulva2007Dermatology, Hirudon Gel
943Seleznev KG, ShchetiniviaEA, Trophimenko NP, Nikonov GI & Baskova IPUse of the medicinal leech in the treatment of ear diseases1992Tinnitus
944Senchenkov A & Jacobson SRMicrovascular salvage of a thrombosed total ear replant2013Surgery
945Senthilkumaran S, Benita F, Menezes RG & Thrumalaikolundusubramanian PLeech therapy and infection control: No clear window2014Infections
946Shah SWhy leeches influence my physical examination1998Therapy, Demography
947Shain DHAnnelids in Modern Biology2009Biology, Handbook
948Shakouri A, Adljouy N, Balkani S, Mohamadi M, Safari F & Hamishekar HEffectiveness of topical gel of medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) saliva extract on patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized study2017Orthopeadics, Osteoarthritis, Saliva Extract Gel
949Shammas RL, Cornejo A, Poveromo LP & Hollenbeck STOutcomes of leech therapy for venous congestion after reconstructive surgery2016Review Article, Surgery, Venous Congestion
950Shamsaddini S & Dabiri SBasal cell carcinoma on nickel dermatitis after leech applying2000Pharmacovigilance, Dermatology, Dermatitis
951Shankar KMP, Rao SD, Umar SN & Gopalkrishnaiah VA clinical trial for evaluation of leech application in the management of Vicarcika (Eczema)2014Dermatology, Eczema
952Shankar Pratap KM, Dattatreya R & Prasad SA histopathological study on leech application in the management of vicarcika (Eczema)2013Dermatology, Eczema, Doppler-Fluorimetry
953Sharma AG & Bamola PRole of Jalaukavacharana in Netra Roga2016Review
954Shashank J & Londe PDRole of leech application in Vatarakta: A pilot study2014Orthopaedics, Gout
955Shaw BK & Kristan WBThe whole-body shortening reflex of the medicinal leech: motor pattern, sensory basis, and interneuronal pathways1995Biology, Nervous System
956Shchekotow GMDie Anwendung von Blutegeln bei varikös erweiterten Venen1980Varicosis
957Shenfeld OZSuccessful use of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) for the treatment of venous insufficiency in a replanted digit1999Surgery
958Shiffa M, Siddiqui MA, Sultana A, Zaman F, Fahamiya N & Akhtar MUComparative clinical evaluation of leech therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis2013Osteoarthritis
959Shifra ASF & Ayshah FAHIrsal e alaq (Hirudo therapy) on Maa e Aksar (glaucoma): A scientific review2017Glaucoma
960Shope REThe leech as potential virus reservoir1957Pharmacovigilance, Infections
961Shorr AF, Kwong LM & Sarnes MVenous thromboembolism after orthopaedic surgery: implications of the choice for prophylaxis2007Saliva, Faktor X a-Inhibitor, Surgery, Pharamcovigilance
962Shyam SR, Rashmi K & Yogesh NA study of jalaukavacharana (leech therapy) on vicharchika (eczema): A case report2016Dermatology, Eczema
963Siddall ME, Trontelj P, Utevsky SY, Nkamani M & Macdonald KSDiverse molecular data demonstrate that commercially available medicinal leeches are not Hirudo medicinalis2007Taxonomy, Hirudo medicinalis
964Siddall ME, Worthen PL, Johnson M & Graf JNovel role for Aeromonas jandaei as a digestive tract symbiont of the North American medicinal leech2007Aeromonas Jandaei
965Silver AC & Graf JPrevalence of genes encoding the type three secretion system and the effectors AexT and AexU in the Aeromonas veronii group2009Biology, Leeches
966Silver AC, Rabinowitz NM, Kuffer S & Graf JIdentification of Aeromonas veronii genes required for colonization of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana2007Aeromonas
967Silver AC, Williams D, Faucher J et al.Complex Evolutionary History of the Aeromonas veronii Group Revealed by Host Interaction and DNA Sequence Data2011Biology, Aeromonas, DNA, Pharmacovigilance
968Singh APMedicinal leech therapy (hirudotherapy): a brief overview2010Review Article, Therapy
969Singh OPClinical validation of leech therapy in the management of gout2013Orthopaedics, Gout
970Sirajuddin SM, Shaikh A & Sajid MMThe effect of Irsal-E-Alaq (leech) in the management of varicose vein: A review2017Varicosis
971Slesak G, Inthalad S, Strobel M, Marschal M, Hall MJR & Newton PNChromoblastomycosis after a leech bite complicated by myiasis: A case report2011Pharmacovigilance
972Smeets IMG & Engelberts IThe use of leeches in a case of post-operative life-threatening macroglossia1995Surgery, Haematoma
973Smolle J, Cerroni L & Kerl HMultiple pseudolymphoma caused by Hirudo medicinalis2000Pharmacovigilance, Pseudolymphoma, Varicosis, Oedema, Dermatology
974Smolnikoff VPLeech and vrach1972Therapy
975Smoot EC, Debs N, Banducci D, Poole M & Roth ACLeech therapy and bleeding wound techniques to relieve venous congestion1990Surgery, Methodology
976Smoot EC, Ruiz-Inchaustegui JA & Roth ACMechanical leech therapy to relieve venous congestion1995Surgery, Methodology, Pharmacology
977Snider DP, Stone PJ, Lucey EC et al.Eglin c, a polypeptide derived from the medicinal leech, prevents human neutrophil elastase-induced emphysema and bronchial secretory cell metaplasia in the hamster1985Saliva, Eglin, Pharmacology
978Snower DP, Ruef C, Kuritza AP & Edberg CAeromonas hydrophila infection associated with the use of medicinal leeches1989Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas hydrophila
979So AK, Varisco PA, Kemkes-Matthes B et al.:.Arthritis is linked to local and systemic activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways2003Osteoarthritis, Anicoagulation
980Sobczak N & Kantyka MHirudotherapy in veterinary medicine2014Veterinary Medicine
981Soffian MSM, Mohamed I & Shukri NA rare cause of otalgia and otorrhagia: Alive leech in the ear2016Casuality, Wild Leeches
982Soler L, Marco F, Vila J, Chacon MR et al.Evaluation of two miniaturized systems, MicroScan W/A and BBL Crystal E/NF, for identification of clinical isolates of Aeromonas spp.2003Aeromonas
983Soler L, Yanez MA, Chacon MR et al.Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Aeromonas based on two housekeeping genes2004Aeromonas
984Söllner C, Mentele R, Eckerskorn C, et al.:Isolation and characterization of hirustasin, an antistasin-type serine-protease inhibitor from the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis1994Saliva, Hirustasin
985Sommerhoff CP, Arolas JL, Reverter D, et al.Parasite-derived inhibitors of mast cell proteases: Templates for drug design2006Saliva, LDTI, Hirustasin
986Sommerhoff CP, Söllner C; Mentele R et al.A Kazal-type inhibitor of human mast cell Tryptase: Isolation from the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis, characterization, and sequence analysis1994Saliva, LDTI
987Soucacos PN, Beris AE, Malizos KN, Xenacis & Georgoulis ASuccessful treatment of venous congestion in free skin flaps using medicinal leeches1994Surgery
988Soucacous PN, Beris AE, Malizos KN, Kabani TC & Pakos SThe use of medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis, to restore venous circulation in trauma and reconstructive surgery1994Surgery
989Soucek WEine neue Indikation für die Blutegelbehandlung: Die rheumatische periarthrale Schwellung1941Rheumatism
990Spaans AJ, van Minnen LP, Kon M, Schuurmann AH, Schreuders AR & Vermeulen GMConservative treatment of thumbbase osteoarthritis: A systematic review2015Osteoarthritis (thumb), Orthopaedics
991Spahn G, Rieckmann T, Michalsen A, Lüdtke R & Dobos GJLongterm results and adverse effects of leech therapy in osteoarthritis2005Osteoarthritis
992Spear MMedicinal leech therapy: Friend or foe2016Review Article
993Sprott HKleiner Biss mit großer Wirkung - Hirudotherapie des 21. Jahrhunderts2018Pain, Rheumatism
994Srivastava A & Sharma RA brief review on applications of leech therapy2010Therapy
995Stange RTherapie mit Blutegeln2008Osteoarthritis, Review Article, Therapy
996Stange R, Moser C, Hopfenmüller W, Mansmann U, Bühring M & Ühleke BRandomised controlled trial with medical leeches for osteoarthritis of the knee2012Osteoarthritis
997Steer A, Daley AJ & Curtis NSuppurative sequelae of symbiosis2005Surgery
998Sternberg J, Doerler M, Stuecker M & Gambichler TPseudolymphomas after leech therapy2017Pharmacovigilance, Pseudolymphoma, Dermatology
999Stern-Tomlinson W, Nusbaum MP, Perez E & Kristan WBA kinematic study of crawling behavior in the leech Hirudo medicinalis1986Biology, Muscular System
1000Stock D, Diezemann R, Ell N & Gottstein JBringt die lokale Blutegelwirkstoffapplikation Vorteile für die Mobilisierung operierter Gelenke?1979Orthopaedics, Surgery, Leech Ointment
1001Stock FDer Einsatz von Blutegeln zur symptomatischen Schmerztherapie bei Patienten mit Arthrose des Kniegelenks2009Osteoarthritis
1002Stokoz KY & Bystritskaya TSLeech therapy in women with a history of primary ologomenorrhoea2016Menorrhoea, Endometriosis
1003Stölzle AZur perkutanen Resorption und Immunogenität der Proteinaseinhibitoren Hirudin, Eglin und Bdellin aus dem Blutegel Hirudo medicinalis1983Saliva, Hirudin, Eglin, Bdellin, Transdermal Kinetics, Leech Ointment
1004Stone SR & Hofsteenge JKinetics of the inhibition of thrombin by hirudin1986Hirudin, Anticoagulation
1005Storck UBlutegel, Lebende Medikamente2000Review Article, Rheumatism, Osteoarthritis, Dermatology
1006Storck UDas Anwendungsgebiet der Blutegeltherapie bei rheumatischen Erkrankungen: Erfahrungen aus 35-jähriger Anwendung an einem rheumatologischen Zentrum2012Review Article, Rheumatism
1007Straaten TDie Blutegeltherapie der Thrombose1933Thrombosis
1008Stratton MS, Ammar A, Wang Y, Hessein M, Guns E, Kucuk O, Merzouk A & Kwok DBPS-001, a complex biologic agent from the medicinal leech (Hirudinaria manillensis) for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer2016Pharmacology, Prostate Cancer
1009Streit L, Dvorak Z, Novak O, Stiborova S & Vesely JThe use of medicinal leeches in fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis – case report of a 4-year old patient2014Surgery
1010Stringer KA & Lindenfeld JHirudin antithrombin anticoagulants1992Hirudin, Anticoagulation
1011Strittmatter W, Gussow D, Hofmann U et al.Protein for blocking platelet adhesion.2006Saliva, Calin, Saratin, Patent
1012Strittmatter W, Gussow D, Hofmann U et al.Protein for blocking platelet adhesion2004Saliva, Calin, Saratin, Patent
1013Strümper HJBlutegeltherapie gestern und heute1963Therapy, History
1014Stubbs MT, Morenweiser R, Stürzebecher J et al.The three-dimensional structure of recombinant leech-derived tryptase inhibitor in complex with trypsin1997Saliva, LDTI
1015Subritzkij WIDie Behandlung des Priapismus mit Blutegeln1960Urology, Priapism
1016Sulger E & Bozsin TÜber die postoperative Thrombose und Embolie sowie ihre therapeutische und prophylaktische Behandlung mit Blutegeln1929Anticoagulation, Thrombosis, Embolism
1017Sullivan SR & Taylor HOEar replantation2014Surgery
1018Surendranth D, Rao PN, Gopikrishna BJ & Pathak ARole of leeches in peri-orbital lacerations healed by primary intention2016Haematoma, Wound Healing
1019Suter S & Chevallier IThe effect of eglinc on the function of human neutrophils in vitro1988Saliva, Eglin
1020Syed AA & Mehta ATarget specific anticoagulant peptides: A review2018Biology, Pharmacology
1021Talbi M, Stussi JD & Meley MMicrosurgical replantation of a totally amputated ear without venous repair2001Surgery
1022Tambuwala A, Kaul D, Bohra T & Antula RALeech therapy in the management of congested free flaps2016Review Article
1023Tan O, Atik B & Koscoglu BAn easy and safe method to apply leeches on flaps: The leech cage2004Surgery
1024Tanaka AS, Silva MM, Torquato RJS et al.:Functional phage display of leech-derived tryptase inhibitor (LDTI) : construction of a library and selection of thrombin inhibitors1999Saliva, LDTI
1025Taneja P & Rowson JNational survey of the use and application of leeches in oral and maxillofacial surgery in the United Kingdom2011Surgery
1026Tanzeel A & Mohd AClinical importance of leech therapy2009Review Article, Therapy, Venesection
1027Tarazjamshidi M, Bagheri F, Mirkazemi M, Amelfarzad S, Ashraf H, Azami M & Perivandi MTLeech therapy in nearly amputation of fingers without vascular repair: A case report2014Surgery
1028Techmer GDie Blutegelbehandlung1990Therapy
1029Tenkir A & Tibebu TLeech on the eye in a child2010Leeches
1030Teut M & Warning ABlutegel, Phytotherapie und Physiotherapie bei Gonarthrose – eine geriatrische Fallstudie2008Osteoarthritis
1031Thakur I, Reddy S, Patil S & Rajendra KHirudotherapy in dentistry2016Dentistry
1032Tholen GADie Behandlung postoperativer und puerperaler Thrombosen und Embolien1927Thrombosis, Embolism
1033Thorndike TWA history of bleeding and leeching1927History
1034Tian J, Iwasaki T & Friesen OWMuscle function in animal movement: passive mechanical properties of leech muscle2007Biology, Muscular System
1035Tib TWS, Iqbal A & Advia IHistorical aspects of leech therapy: A critical review2013History
1036Tibbles SThe use of leeches in eye diseases1935Ophthalmology
1037Titlow J, Majeed ZR, Nicholls JG & Cooper RLIntracellular recording, sensory field mapping, and culturing identified neurons in the leech, Hirudo medicinalis2013Neurons
1038Tomina Y & Wagenaar DAWhole ganglion imaging of voltage in the medicinal leech using a double-sided microscope2017Biology
1039Traina G & Scuri RAcetyl-L-Carnitine affects the electrical activity of mechanosensory neurons in Hirudo medicinalis ganglia2017Feeding, L-Carnitine
1040Tripathi AK, Gupta SJ & Varshney SCHaematological study in patients with cellulitis treated by leech therapy2011Dermatology, Cellulitis, Wound Healing
1041Tripthi P & Ashalata MHirudotherapy - Modern twist to ancient science and its relevance in maxillofacial region - A review article2015Review
1042Troeltzsch M, Troeltzsch M, Probst FA, Ristow O, Ehrenfeld M & Otto SCurrent concepts in salvage procedures for failing microvascular flaps: Is there a superior technique? Insights from a systematic review of the literature2016Surgery Review Article
1043Tronnier HWeitere experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Wirksamkeit einer Hirudin-haltigen Salbe1969Leech Ointment, Hirudin
1044Trontelj A & Utevsky SYCelebrity with a neglected taxonomy: molecular systematic of the medicinal leech (genus Hirudo)2005Hirudo medicinalis, Taxonomy
1045Trontelj A & Utevsky SYPhylogeny and phylogeography of medicinal leeches (genus Hirudo): Fast disposal and shallow genetic structure2012Hirudo medicinalis
1046Trontelj P, Scotler M & Verovnk RGenetic differentiation between two species of the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis and the neglected H. verbana, based on random-amplified polymorphic DNA2004Hirudo medicinalis, Taxonomy
1047Trovato MJ & Agarwal JPSuccessful Replantation of the ear as a venous flap2008Surgery
1048Tschoerner P & Zebe EAmmonia formation in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis - In vivo and in vitro investigations1989Biology, Breeding
1049Tuncali D, Terzioglu A, Cigsar B & Aslan GThe value of medicinal leeches in the treatment of class IIc ring avulsion injuries; a report of 2 cases2004Surgery
1050Tushmalova NA, Pragina LL, Baskova IP et al.Positive effect of Piyavit on formation and retention of the passive avoidance conditional reaction in rats2001Piyavit, Pharmacology, Leech Ointment
1051Tuszynski GP, Gasic TB & Gasic GJIsolation and characterization of Antistasin. An inhibitor of metastasis and coagulation1987Haementeria officinalis, Saliva, Antistasin, Anticoagulation
1052Upton JHirudo medicinalis: A tenacious clinical tool1986Review Article
1053Upton JLeeches1987Surgery
1054Uson I, Sheldrick GM, de la Fortelle et al.The 1.2 A crystal structure of Hirustasin reveals the intrinsic flexibility of a family of highly disulphide-bridged inhibitors1999Saliva, Hirustasin
1055Utevsky SYPatterns of specification and phylogenesis of leeches (Hirudinida)2014Leeches, Taxonomy, Demography, Specification, Phylogenesis
1056Utevsky SY & Trontelj PA new species of the medicinal leech (Oligochaeta, Hirudina, Hirudo) from Transcaucasia and an identification key for the genus Hirudo2005Leeches, Taxonomy
1057Utevsky SY, Kovalenko N, Doroskenko K, Petrauskiene L & Klymenko VChromosome numbers for three species of medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.)2009Leeches, Taxonomy
1058Utevsky SY, Zagmajster M, Atemasov A, Zinenko A, Utevska O, Utevsky A & Trontelj PDistribution and status of medicinal leeches (genus Hirudo) in the Western Palaeartic: anthropogenic, ecological, or historical effects2010Leeches, Taxonomy, Demography
1059Utley DS, Koch RJ & Goode RLThe failing flap in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery: role of the medicinal leech1998Surgery
1060Uzun G, Cezdemin A, Yildiz S & Tanyuksel MTo suck or not to suck: Medicinal leech therapy for lower extremity wounds in patients with peripheral arterial disease2014Wound Healing, Dermatology
1061Vadas P, Gold M, Perelman B et al.Platelet-Activating Factor, PAF Acetylhydrolase, and Severe Anaphylaxis2008Saliva, PAF-Inhibitor, Anaphylaxis
1062Vaibhaw A, Antiwal M, Singh JP & Singh OPLeech therapy (Jalaukavacharan) in Ayurveda medicine: A scientific review2016Review, Leech therapy, Ayurveda
1063Valauri FAAeromonas hydrophila infection complicating digital replantation and revascularization1991Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas hydrophila, Surgery
1064Valauri FAThe use of medicinal leeches in microsurgery1991Surgery, History, Review Article
1065Van Alphen NA, Gonzalez A, McKenna MC, McKenna TK, Carlsen BT & Moran SLCiprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas infection following leech therapy for digit replantation: Report of 2 cases2014Pharmacovigilance, Surgery, Aeromonas, Ciprofloxacin
1066Van Heiningen TWJean-Baptiste Sarlandière‘s mechanical leeches (1817-1825): An early response in the Netherlands to a shortage of leeches2009History
1067Varghese MR, Farr RW, Wax, MK, Brett JC & Owens RMVibrio fluvialis wound infection associated with medicinal leech therapy1996Surgery, Infections, Vibrio fluvialis
1068Varisco PA, Peclat V, van Ness K et al.Effect of thrombin inhibition on synovial inflammation in antigen induced arthritis2000Osteoarthritis, Anti-Inflammation, Anticoagulation, Hirudin, Pharmacology
1069Varsha S & Pradeep KRole of leech therapy in the management of Vidradhi (Amavastha and Pachyamanavastha)2017Dermatology, Abscesses
1070Verma PL & Kohli GSLeech: a rare cause of epistaxis1965Leeches, Epistaxis
1071Verriere B, Sabatier B, Carbonelle E, Mainardi JI, Prognon P, Whitaker I, Lantieri L & Hivelin MMedicinal leech therapy and Aeromonas spp. infection2016Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas, Surgery
1072Viard JL‘extrait de sangsues dans le traitement des ulcères de jambe et les troubles trophiques postphlébitiques anciens1954Leech Ointment, Leg Ulcer, Phlebitis
1073Vigani A, Schnoke A & Pozzi AMaggot debridement and leech therapy as treatment of a partial digital amputation injury in a dog2011Veterinary Medicine
1074Vigani A, Schnoke A & Pozzi AMaggot debridement and leech therapy of a partial digital amputation injury in a dog2000Veterinary Medicine
1075Vilahur G, Duran X, Juan-Babot O et al.Antithrombotic effects of saratin on human atherosclerotic plaques2004Saliva, Calin, Saratin
1076VirelyLes sangsues dans le traitement des phlébites1928Phlebitis
1077Viviano SL & Keith JEarly experience using anastomotic couplers in digital replantation and revascularization2017Surgery, Digits
1078Viviano SL, Hahn E, Lee ES & Keith JDThe leech condo: An innovative approach to containing leeches on a congested flap2015Surgery
1079Voge C & Lehnherr SMLeeches1999Review Article
1080Vogler PProstatitis1964Urology, Prostatitis
1081Vorster RÜber die Behandlung mit Blutegeln1936Therapy
1082Vorster RDie Verhütung von postoperativen Thrombosen und Embolien1937Thrombosis, Embolism, Anticoagulation
1083Vorster RThrombose und Embolieprophylaxe1938Thrombosis, Embolism, Anticoagulation
1084Wade JW, Brabham RF & Allen RJMedical leeches: once again at the forefront of medicine1990Therapy
1085Wagenaar DA, Hamilton MS, Huang T et al.A hormone-activated central pattern generator for courtship2010Biology
1086Wagenheim GN, Au J & Gargiolo PCMedicinal leech therapy for glans penis congestion after primary bladder exstrophy-epispadias repair in an infant: A case report2016Surgery, Paediatrics
1087Wagner JA, Kendler M, Simon JC & Wetzig THirudo medicinalis – Blutegel-Anwendung in der Dermatochirurgie2010Surgery, Dermatology
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1090Walenga JM, Bakhos M, Messmore HL, Fareed J & Pifarre RPotential use of recombinant hirudin as an anticoagulant in a cardiopulmonary bypass model1991Saliva, Recombinant Hirudin
1091Walenga JM, Jeske WP, Hoppensteadt D & Fareed JFactor X a inhibitors2004Saliva, Faktor X a-Inhibitor
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1095Walsmann PÜber die Standardisierung von Hirudin-Handelspräparaten1964Leech Ointment
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1099Walz BLight-induced changes of extra- and intracellular potassium concentration in photoreceptors of the leech Hirudo medicinalis1985Biology, Nervous System
1100Wang EW , Warren DK, Ferris VM, Casabar E & Nussenbaum BLeech-transmitted Ciprofloxacin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila2011Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas hydrophila, Resistance to Antibiotics
1101Wang WZ, Emes RD, Christoffers K et al.Hirudo medicinalis: A platform for investigating genes in neural repair2005Hirudo medicinalis, Genomics
1102Warketin TE, Maurer BT & Aster RHHeparin-induced thrombocytopenia associated with fondaparinux2007Saliva, Faktor X a-Inhibitor
1103Watt EAre medicinal leeches an infection hazard?1987Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Aeromonas
1104Weiler PUntersuchungen über die antibiotische Wirkung an Blutegeln, Blutegelbakterien und deren keimfreiem Filtrat1949Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Antibiosis
1105Weinberg SLNew medicine from old-hirudin and the leech1994Therapy
1106Weinberg SLPresident‘s page: new medicine from old hirudin and the leech1994Hirudin
1107Weinfeld AB, Kattash M, Grifka R & Friedman JLeech therapy in the management of acute venous congestion of an infant‘s lower limb1998Surgery
1108Weinfeld AB, Yuksel E, Boutros S, Gura D, Akyurek M & Friedman JDClinical and scientific considerations in leech therapy for the management of acute venous congestion. An updated review2000Surgery, Review Article
1109Weitz JI, Hudoba M, Massel D et al.Clot-bound thrombin is protected from inhibition by Heparin-Antithrombin III but is susceptible to inactivation by Antithrombin III-independent inhibitors1990Hirudo medicinalis, Saliva, Anticoagulation
1110Wells MD, Maktelow RT, Boyd JB & Bowen VThe medical leech: an old treatment revisited1993Therapy, Surgery
1111Wells S & Coombs WThe status and trade of the medicinal leech1987Market
1112Wenning A & Cahill MANephridial innervations in the leech Hirudo medicinalis1986Biology, Nervous System
1113Wenning A & Calabrese RLMechanism of Cl- sensitivity in internal ion receptors of the leech: an inward current gated off by Cl- in the nephridial nerve cells1991Biology, Nervous System
1114Wenning A, Cahill MA, Greisunger U & Kaltenhäuser UOrganogenesis in the leech: development of nephridia, bladders and their innervation1993Biology, Nervous System
1115Werner TBlutegeltherapie am Tier2011Veterinary Medicine
1116Wesener GBehandlung der oberflächlichen Thrombophlebitis1965Phlebitis, Thrombophlebitis, Varicosis
1117Wesener GZur Diagnose und Therapie der oberflächlichen Thrombophlebitis (Varicophlebitis) in der Sprechstunde1967Phlebitis, Thrombophlebitis, Varicosis
1118West BR, Nichter LS & Halpern DELeech therapy: When once is enough1991Therapy, Anticoagulation
1119West BR, Nichter LS & Halpern DEEmergent reuse leech therapy: a better method1994Surgery, Feeding, Reuse
1120Westendorff M, Kalettka T & Jueg UOccurrence of leeches (Hirudinea) in different types of water bodies in northeast Germany (Brandenburg)2008Biology, Leeches
1121Westfall PPOn the leech and its use in medicine1949Therapy
1122Whitaker ISMolecular genetic, microbiological and clinical analysisof Hirudo species (leeches). Implications for use in surgical practice.2009Surgery, Review Article, Biology
1123Whitaker IS Maltz M, Siddall ME & Graf JCharacterization of the digestive tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis (Medicinal leech) and antibiotic resistance profile2014Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Resistance to Antibiotics
1124Whitaker IS, Cheung CK, Chahal CA, Karoo RQ, Gulati A & Foo ITBy what mechanism do leeches help to salvage ischaemic tissues? A review2005Surgery, Review Article
1125Whitaker IS, Izadi D, Oliver DW, Monteath G & Butler PEHirudo medicinalis and the plastic surgeon2004Surgery, Therapy
1126Whitaker IS, Josty IC, Hawkins S, Azzopardi E, Naderi N, Graf J, Damaris L, Lineaweaver WC & Kon MMedicinal leech and the microsurgeon: a four-year study, clinical series and risk benefit review2011Surgery, Review Article, Infections, Data Pooling, Aeromonas
1127Whitaker IS, Kamya C, Azzopardi EA, Graf J, Kon M & Lineaweaver WCPreventing infective complications following leech therapy: is practice keeping pace with current research?2009Surgery, Infections, Aeromonas
1128Whitaker IS, Oboumarzouk O, RozenWM, Naderi N, Balasubramanian SP, Azzopardi EA & Kon MThe efficacy of medicinal leeches in plastic and reconstructive surgery: A systematic review of 277 reported clinical cases2012Surgery, Review Article
1129Whitaker IS, Rao J, Izadi D & Butler PEHistorical article: Hirudo medicinalis: ancient origins of, and trends in the use of medicinal leeches throughout history2004Surgery, Review Article, History
1130White TC, Berny MA, Robinson DK, Yin H, deGrado WF, Hanson SR & McCarty OJThe leech product saratin is a potent inhibitor of platelet integrin a2ß1 and von Willebrand factor binding to collagen2007Saliva, Calin, Saratin
1131Whitlock MR, O ‘Hare PM, Sanders R & Morrow NCThe medicinal leech and its use in plastic surgery: A possible cause for infection1983Surgery, Pharmacovigilance, Infections
1132Wiebelitz KR & Beer AMNaturapathy consultation: arthrosis2010Osteoarthritis, Review Article
1133Wildenrath CDas Comeback des Blutegels. Rekombinantes Hirudin in der Anti-Thrombose-Therapie1995Review Article, Therapy, Recombinant Hirudin
1134Wilken GB & Appleton CCThe persistence of hepatitis B antigen in the bloodmeal of the potential medicinal leech, Asiaticobdella buntonensis1993Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Hirudo Asiaticobdella buntonensis
1135Wilken GB & Appleton CCBacteriological investigation of the occurrence and antibiotic sensitivities of the gut-flora of the potential Southern African medicinal leech Asiaticobella buntonemsis (Hirudinidae)1993Pharmacovigilance, Infections, Hirudo Asiaticobdella buntonensis
1136Wilkin PJ & Scofield AMGrowth of the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, under natural and laboratory conditions1991Hirudo medicinalis, Biology, Breeding
1137Williams DG et al.Medicinal leech Hyaluronidase as a potential skin penetration enhancer: in vitro permeation studies1990Hyaluronidase, Skin penetration
1138Wilmer A, Slater K, Yip J, Carr N & Grant JThe role of leech water sampling in choice of prophylactic antibiotics in medical leech therapy2013Pharmacovigilance, Aeromonas, Ciprofloxacin, Sulfamethox.-Trimethoprim, Antibiotics Resistance
1139Wimhöfer HDie Bedeutung der Blutegelbehandlung in der Therapie und Prophylaxe der postoperativen Thrombose1938Thrombosis
1140Wingerden JJ & Oosthuizen JHUse of the local leech Hirudo michaelseni in reconstructive plastic and hand surgery1997Surgery, Hirudo michaelseni
1141Winkler C & Manzke UFunde der Blutegelarten Hirudo medicinalis und Hirudo verbana in Norddeutschland unter Berücksichtigung von Amphibien als Wirtsorganismen - Ergebnisse einer Anfrage der RANA 132014Biology
1142Wittke-Michalsen EZur Praxis der Blutegeltherapie.2009Therapy
1143Wittke-Michalsen EAchtsamer Umgang mit Blutegeln in der Praxis2013Pharmacovigilance, Treatment Procedure
1144Wittke-Michalsen EDie Blutegeltherapie und ihre Wirkung auf Schmerzen bei Kniegelenksarthrose2004Osteoarthritis
1145Wittke-Michalsen EZur Geschichte der Blutegeltherapie2009History
1146Wollina U, Heinig B & Nowak AMedical leech therapy (Hirudotherapy)2016Review Article
1147Worthen DBHirudo medicinalis: the leech2007History, Breeding
1148Worthen PJ, Gode CJ & Graf JCulture-independent characterization of the digestive-tract microbiota of the medicinal leech reveals a tripartite symbiosis2006Aeromonas
1149Yanes O, Villanueva J, Querol E & Aviles FXFunctional screening of serine protease inhibitors in the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis monitored by intensity fading MALDI-TOF MS2005Saliva, Protease, Protease-Inhibitor, Eglin, Trypsin
1150Yantis MA, O‘Toole KN & Ring PLeech therapy2009Surgery, Review Article, Treatment Procedure
1151Yapici AK, Durmus M, Tanyuksel M, Turkhan S, Tuzum HY & Arsenishvili AHirudo medicinalis - historical and biological background and their role in microsurgery2017Review, Surgery
1152Young SR, Dedwylder RD & Friesen WOResponses of the medicinal leech to water waves1981Biology, Nervous System
1153Yuki H & Fishman WHPurification and characterization of leech hyaluronic acid-endo-ß-glucuronidase1963Saliva, Hyaluronidase
1154Yuniar I, Atmodowirjo P & Handayani SLeech therapy in pediatric trauma patient with facial flap2014Surgery, Paediatrics
1155Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S et al.Effects of Fondaparinux on mortality and reinfarction in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the OASIS-6 randomized trial2006Saliva, Faktor X a-Inhibitor, Fondaparinux
1156Zaidi SMUnani treatment and leech therapy saved the diabetic foot of a patient from amputation2016Diabetic Foot, Gangrene, Wound Healing
1157Zapkuvene DV & Sinyavichene DPDevelopment of the salivary glands of medicinal leeches during starvation1976Hirudo medicinalis, Biology, Saliva
1158Zaradova EVExperience with the use of leech therapy at a health resort on patients with hypertension and ischemic heart disease1993Cardio-Vascular System, Cardiology
1159Zarnigar AAEffect of taleeq (leech therapy) in dawali (varicose veins)2011Varicosis, Leg Ulcer, Wound Healing, Doppler-Fluorimetry
1160Zarnigar AAClinical efficacy of leech therapy in varicose ulcer – a case series2011Varicosis, Leg Ulcer, Wound Healing, Doppler-Fluorimetry
1161Zavalova LL, Basanova AV & Baskova IPFibrinogen-fibrin system regulators from bloodsuckers2002Saliva, Hirudin, Destabilase, Faktor XIII a-Inhibitor, Anticoagulation
1162Zavalova LL, Baskova IP & Basanova AVProposed mechanisms of thrombolytic action of the medicinal leech saliva2003Saliva, Destabilase, D-Dimers
1163Zavalova LL, Baskova IP, Barsova EV, Snezhkov EV, Akopov SB & Lopatin SARecombinant destabilase-lysozyme: Synthesis de novo in E.coli and action mechanism of the enzyme expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda2004Saliva, Recombinant Destabilase
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1165Zavalova LL, Kuzina EV, Levina NB & Baskova IPMonomerization of fragment DD by destabilase from the medicinal leech does not alter the N-terminal sequence of the gamma-chain1993Saliva, Destabilase
1166Zavalova LL, Lukyanov SA, Baskova IP, Snezhkov EV, Akopov SB, Berezhnoy S, Bogdanova E, Barsova E & Sverdlov EDGenes from the medicinal leech (hirudo medicinalis) coding for unusual enzymes that specifically cleave endo-epsilon (gamma-Glu)-Lys isopeptide bonds and help to dissolve blood clots1996Saliva, Destabilase, Anticoagulation
1167Zavalova LL, Nikonov GI, Kuzina EV, Popova GI & Baskova IPA dimer of fragment D from stabilized fibrin – a substrate for the destabilase enzyme1991Saliva, Destabilase
1168Zavalova LL, Yudina TG, Artamonova II & Baskova IPAntibacterial non-glycosidase activity of invertebrate destabilase-lysozyme and of its helical amphipathic peptides2006Saliva, Destabilase, Antibiosis
1169Zengin S, Yarbil P, Kilic H & Al BProlonged bleeding due to a medicinal leech bite: Another treatment method, primary suture2012Pharmacovigilance, Bleeding
1170Zerbst-Boroffka IOrganische Säurereste als wichtigste Anionen im Blut von Hirudo medicinalis1970Biology
1171Zerbst-Boroffka IOsmo- und Volumenregulation bei Hirudo medicinalis nach Nahrungsaufnahme1973Biology, Metabolism
1172Zerbst-Boroffka I & Wenning AMechanisms of regulatory salt and water excretion in the leech Hirudo medicinalis1986Hirudo medicinalis, Biology, Feeding
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1175Zhao X, Higgins, KM, Enepekides D & Farwell GMedicinal leech therapy for venous congested flaps: case series and review of the literature2009Surgery, Review Article
1176Zick KWeiteres über Zucht und Fortpflanzung des medizinischen Blutegels1933Biology, Feeding
1177Zulhisyam AK, Ismail A & Omar ICOptimization of growth conditions of Hirudinea sp.2011Biology, Feeding
1178Zweimüller CWirkung von direkten und indirekten Thrombozyteninhibitoren auf die Thrombozytenfunktion bei Patienten mit arterieller Verschlusskrankheit2005Anticoagulation, Thrombosis
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